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    Eye Robotic System for Vitreoretinal Surgery
    DAI Qianlin (代倩琳), XU Mengqiao (徐梦乔), SUN Xiaodong (孙晓东), XIE Le∗ (谢叻)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2369-2
    Abstract538)      PDF(pc) (1040KB)(260)       Save
    Micro incision vitrectomy system (MIVS) is considered to be one of the most difficult tasks of eye surgery, due to its requirements of high accuracy and delicate operation under blurred vision environment. Therefore, robot-assisted ophthalmic surgery is a potential and efficient solution. Based on that consideration, a novel master-slave system for vitreoretinal surgery is realized. A 4-DOF remote center of motion (RCM) mechanism with a novel linear stage and end-effector is designed and the master-slave control system is implemented. The forward and inverse kinematics are analyzed for the controller implementation. Then, algorithms with motion scaling are also integrated into the control architecture for the purpose to enhance the surgeon’s operation accuracy. Finally, experiments on an eye model are conducted. The results show that the eye robotic system can fulfill surgeon’s motion following and simulate operation of vitrectomy, demonstrating the feasibility of this system.
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    Medical Application of 3D Printing:A Powerful Tool for Personalised Treatment
    DAI Kerong (戴尅戎), XU Feng (许锋)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 257-258.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2290-8
    Abstract527)      PDF(pc) (86KB)(226)       Save
    We are in an era of technological revolutions promoting personalised healthcare. Advances in medical imaging techniques with 3D imaging software and 3D printing have allowed healthcare professionals to view and document various geometrical structures in a brand-new way, enabling them to make meaningful 3D measurements more accurately by generating both virtual and physical models used for preoperative planning,physician-patient communication, and fabrication of surgical guides, instruments, and implants[1-5]. With improvements in cost-effectiveness, efficiency, and mechanical properties, 3D printing technologies have become a powerful tool for physicians to meet clinical requirements. Furthermore, biological tissues made from 3D printing may eventually provide patients with required human organs in the future[6-7].
    Although both medical communities and socialmedia spare no effort to highlight the prospects of 3D printing technologies in healthcare and popularise this innovative new method through Web-based approaches to promote its application in personalised treatment, to date, not a single healthcare organisation has yet released new technologies, disseminated findings in peerreviewed
    literature, or clarified the role and aims of 3D printing in healthcare. This, in turn, has left much of the current research and development to medical device companies, expecting them to meet individual clinical requests. Therefore, at present and in the future, it is critical to have a clear understanding of the clinical implementation of 3D printing for both traditional and personalised healthcare.
    The first step in the entire 3D printing process starts with medical imaging, in which professionals with expertise
    in radiology and imaging processing have conducted many investigations to identify and quantify patient-specific anatomical areas and geometrical structures before designing and manufacturing personalised medical models, surgical guides, medical instruments,
    and devices using 3D printing[8-11]. It must be noted that 3D printing usually starts with conventional clinical images, and errors cannot be avoided with several more complex steps involved in image processing. Traditionally,medical images have been acquired in radiology departments by trained radiologists using special software packages. With the help of commercial medical imaging processing software, such as MIMICS,Analyze, and MeDraw, many physicians from different specialties, with little engineering background, are able to perform these analyses by themselves and develop their preoperative planning software tailored to special
    medical treatments. Understandably, the development of software tailored to 3D printing needed in medicine could accelerate and promote its popularity in clinical practice.
    Organised by Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Science), this special issue, authored by a group of physicians and engineers with diverse and interdisciplinary backgrounds and insights, is intended to introduce their research topics in the most hotly debated areas where medical 3D printing is used in patient care,especially focusing on medical and dental applications.
    The issue also presents some related topics about imaging generation and processing, material properties, and biomechanics, among others. However, it is difficult to cover all the 3D printing fundamentals.
    In the current special issue, some interesting studies provide details regarding how to apply 3D printing to medical or dental personalised healthcare, which could be invaluable for physicians who would like to find their own methods of developing personalised routines by applying 3D printing in daily practice. The issue also includes some dedicated studies that focus
    on imaging and software applications, which are indispensable for those who are eager to enter the field of pre-processing in 3D printing. Last but not least, some studies discussing material properties and biomechanics with in-depth insights regarding the safety and reliability of 3D printing technology in the manufacturing of medical devices can be found in this issue. As authors
    and advocates of personalised treatment, we are interested in promoting 3D printing from its current niche applications to more widespread use in the medical community. Thus, this special issue also includes studies on some of these niche applications. Since 3D printing technology is now growing at an exponential rate, it is definitely a very challenging task to organise issues on 3D printing in personalised patient care. In this issue, we attempt to inspire our readers by choosing some clinical examples in several representative areas to show how 3D printing positively influences personalised healthcare.
    There is no doubt that 3D printing is truly one of the leading technologies of the 21st century and praised as a key feature of the fourth industrial revolution. We hope this special issue could provide essential information to help you understand the role that 3D printing plays in personalised patient care with the purpose of improving clinical outcomes and quality of life for patients in China and around the world. Finally, we genuinely hope that people with lofty ideals from both medical and engineering fields who are interested in 3D printing technologies notice this special issue and join us to enter the field with your meaningful contributions.
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    Sealing Performance of Pressure-Adaptive Seal
    LI Yuanfeng (李元丰), WANG Yiling (王怡灵), ZHANG Wanxin∗ (张万欣), LIU Jinian (刘冀念), MA Jialu (马加炉)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (6): 747-756.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2510-x
    Abstract470)      PDF(pc) (2268KB)(176)       Save
    A pressure-adaptive seal is developed to meet the demands of quick assembling and disassembling for an individual protection equipment in aerospace. The analysis model, which reflects the main characteristics of the seal structure, is built based on the finite element method and the Roth’s theory of rubber seal, and verified by the prototype test. The influences of precompression ratio, hardness of the sealing ring rubber, and friction coefficient on the sealing performance are investigated by variable parameter method. Results show that the model can describe the essential characteristics of the pressure-adaptive seal structure, which has good follow-up to the cavity pressure to achieve the purpose of pressure self-adaptive. The leakage rate correlates negatively with the precompression ratio of the sealing ring and the hardness of the sealing ring material, while is positively related to the friction coefficient between the sealing ring and the sealing edge. The maximum contact stress on sealing surface has negative correlation with the precompression ratio of the sealing ring, and positive correlation with the hardness of the seal ring material. The damage risk of the sealing ring increases with the increases of the precompression ratio of sealing ring, hardness of sealing ring material, and friction coefficient.
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    Curvature Adaptive Control Based Path Following for Automatic Driving Vehicles in Private Area
    SHI Qiang (师 强), ZHANG Jianlin (张建林), YANG Ming∗ (杨 明)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 690-698.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2359-4
    Abstract463)      PDF(pc) (1349KB)(123)       Save
    Path following refers to traveling along the desired path with automatic steering control, which is a crucial technology for automatic driving vehicles. Roads in private areas are highly irregular, resulting in a large curvature variation, which reduces the control accuracy of the path following. A curvature adaptive control (CAC) based path-following method was proposed to solve the problem mentioned above. Speci?cally, CAC takes advantage of the complementary characteristics in response to the path curvature ?uctuation of pure pursuit and front-wheel feedback and by combining the two methods further enhances the immunity of the control accuracy in response to a curvature ?uctuation. With CAC, the quantitative indices of the path curvature ?uctuation and control accuracy were constructed. The model between the path curvature ?uctuation and a dynamic parameter was identi?ed using the quantitative index of the control accuracy as the optimization target. The experimental results of a real vehicle indicate that the control accuracy of path following is further enhanced by its immunity in response to curvature ?uctuation improved by the CAC. In addition, CAC is easy to deploy and requires low demand for hardware resources.
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    Travel Intention of Electric Vehicle Sharing based on Theory of Multiple Motivations
    BAO Lewen (鲍乐雯), MIAO Rui, ∗ (苗 瑞), CHEN Zhihua (陈志华), ZHANG Bo (张 博), GUO Peng (郭 鹏), MA Yuze (马宇泽)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-023-2563-5
    Abstract458)      PDF(pc) (467KB)(152)       Save
    Determining the travel intention of residents with shared electric vehicles (EVs) is significant for promoting the development of low-carbon transportation, considering that common problems such as high idle rate and lack of attractiveness still exist. To this end, a structural equation model (SEM) based on the theory of multiple motivations is proposed in this paper. First, the influencing motivations for EV sharing are divided into three categories: consumer-driven, program-driven, and enterprise-driven motivations. Then, the intentions of residents in Shanghai to travel with shared EVs are obtained through a survey questionnaire. Finally, an SEM is constructed to analyze quantitatively the impact of different motivations on the travel intention. The results show that consumer-driven motivations with impact weights from 0.14 to 0.63 have the overwhelming impact on travel intention, compared to program-driven motivations with impact weights from ?0.14 to 0.15 and enterprise-driven motivations with impact weights from 0.02 to 0.06. In terms of consumer-driven motivations, the weight of green travel awareness is the highest. The implications of these results on the policy to enable large-scale implementation of shared EVs are discussed from the perspectives of the resident, enterprise, and government.
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    UAV Task Allocation for Hierarchical Multiobjective Optimization in Complex Conditions Using Modified NSGA-III with Segmented Encoding
    JIN Yudong (靳宇栋), FENG Jiabo (冯家波), ZHANG Weijun (张伟军)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (4): 431-445.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2269-5
    Abstract441)      PDF(pc) (2668KB)(314)       Save
    With the recent boom in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology, many UAV applications involving complex and risky tasks in military and civilian fields have emerged, such as military strikes and disaster monitoring. Task allocation for UAVs is the process of planning the division of work among UAVs, controlled from ground stations by human operators. This study formulates the UAV task-allocation problem as an extended traveling salesman problem and presents a novel UAV task-allocation model for complex air concentration monitoring tasks. Then, an optimized non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm III (NSGA-III) based on a twin-exclusion mechanism, hierarchical objective-domination operator, and segmented gene encoding (i.e., NSGA-III-TEHOD) is developed to solve complex task-allocation problems involving multiple UAVs, hierarchical objectives, obstacles, and ambient wind. The algorithm is tested in several simulations, and the results demonstrate that the new algorithm outperforms NSGA-III, non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II), and genetic algorithm (GA) in terms of efficiency of global convergence and early maturation prevention and is available for the hierarchical objective-optimization problems.

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    Real-Time Deformation Simulation of Kidney Surgery Based on Virtual Reality
    JING Mengjie (荆梦杰), CUI Zhixin(崔志鑫), FU Hang (傅航), CHEN Xiaojun (陈晓军)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 290-297.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2295-3
    Abstract431)      PDF(pc) (3888KB)(139)       Save
    Virtual reality-based surgery simulation is becoming popular with the development of minimally invasive  abdominal surgery, where deformable soft tissue is modelled and simulated. The mass-spring model (MSM)  and finite element method (FEM) are common methods used in the simulation of soft tissue deformation. However,  MSM has an issue concerning accuracy, while FEM has a problem with efficiency. To achieve higher accuracy and  efficiency at the same time, we applied a co-rotational FEM in the simulation of a kidney with a tumour inside,  achieving a real-time and accurate deformation simulation. In addition, we set a multi-model representation for  mechanical simulation and visual rendering. The implicit Euler method and conjugate gradient method were  adopted for setting and solving the linear system. For a realistic simulation of surgery, constraints outside the  kidney and between the kidney and tumour were set with two series of mechanical properties for the two models.  Experiments were conducted to validate the accuracy and real-time performance.
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    Total Talar Replacement Using a Novel 3D-Printed Prosthesis for Recurrent Giant Cell Tumour of the Talus
    GAN Yaokai (干耀恺), DAI Kerong (戴尅戎), LI Jianying (李健瑛), SHI Dingwei (史定伟), SHEN Lu (沈陆), JIANG Wenbo (姜闻博)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 391-397.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2310-8
    Abstract413)      PDF(pc) (1816KB)(46)       Save
    In our case, 3D printing was used to fabricate a custom-made titanium alloy total talar prosthesis as  a mirror image of the contralateral healthy talus for a 16-year-old girl who underwent right talar resection for a  recurrent giant cell tumour (GCT) of the talus. A porous surface was used over the neck and tail of the talus  prosthesis to promote soft tissue attachment and improve the stability of the prosthesis. Pre-drilled medial and  lateral holes were prepared for ligament repair and attachment. Eighteen months after the operation, there was  no tumour recurrence, and the patient walked without symptoms. The Musculoskeletal Tumour Society score was  22/30, the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society score was 88/100, and the prosthesis was well positioned  on radiographs. The short- and medium-term outcomes indicated that 3D-printed modular talar prostheses could  be an effective treatment option. 
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    Teleoperated Puncture Robot System: Preliminary Design and Workspace Analysis
    HU Bo (胡博), LIN Yanping∗ (林艳萍), CHEN Shihang (陈士行), WANG Fang (汪方), MA Xiaojun (马小军), CAO Qixin (曹其新)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (1): 15-23.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2368-3
    Abstract411)      PDF(pc) (1455KB)(74)       Save
    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) guided by X-ray images aims to relieve herniated disc pain with minimal invasiveness and fast recovery. It requires an accurate and fast positioning of the puncture needle. We propose a teleoperated robotic system for percutaneous puncture to support RFA. We report the kinematics modelling and workspace analysis of the proposed system, which comprises preliminary and accurate positioning mechanisms. Preliminary positioning mechanism automatically drives the needle to the puncture area, and accurate positioning is then achieved by teleoperation under the guidance of X-ray images. We calculate the teleoperation workspace of the robot system using a spatial search algorithm and quantitatively analyze the optimal structural parameters aiming to maximize the workspace. The workspace of the proposed robot system complies with clinical requirements to support RFA.
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    Development of a Robotic Cochlear Implantation System
    CHEN Ziyun (陈子云), XIE Le (谢叻), DAI Peidong (戴培东), ZHANG Tianyu (张天宇)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (1): 7-14.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2381-6
    Abstract396)      PDF(pc) (1384KB)(85)       Save
    Traditional cochlear implantation surgery has problems such as high surgical accuracy requirement and large trauma, which cause the difficulty of the operation and the high requirements for doctors, so that only a few doctors can complete the operation independently. However, there is no research on robotic cochlear implantation in China. In response to this problem, a robotic cochlear implantation system is proposed. The robot is controlled by robot operating system (ROS). A simulation environment for the overall surgery is established on the ROS based on the real surgery environment. Through the analysis of the kinematics and the motion planning algorithm of the manipulator, an appropriate motion mode is designed to control the motion of the manipulator, and perform the surgery under the simulation environment. A simple and feasible method of navigation is proposed, and through the model experiment, the feasibility of robotic cochlear implantation surgery is verified.
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    Effects of Mandibular Extractions with Clear Aligners: A Finite Element Analysis
    FENG Qiping (冯齐平), CHU Fengting (储沨婷), CHEN Rongjing (陈荣敬), PAN Xiaogang (潘晓岗)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 377-382.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2308-2
    Abstract392)      PDF(pc) (844KB)(76)       Save
    This study was aimed at analysing the mechanical characteristics of different mandibular extraction  modes using a clear aligner. Three experimental schemes of different extraction patterns were designed to treat  mandibular crowding, including extraction of one mandibular central incisor, bilateral first premolars, and bilateral  second premolars. The stress distribution during the space closing was analysed using the finite element method.  When a central incisor was extracted, a significant retraction force was found in the anterior region, in line  with the design expectation. The posterior teeth, which were designed to move mesially, acted as anchorage for  anterior retraction, and were subjected to a mesial force. The anterior teeth were retracted when the bilateral  first premolars were extracted. The lateral incisors and canines were subjected to a significant distal force and  moment, while the central incisors and canines were subjected to lingual forces and moments. Additionally, the  canines were subjected to a non-designated intruding force. The molars were designed to move mesially when the  bilateral second premolars were extracted. All molars were subjected to a significant mesial force, while the lingual  force on the front teeth was slight. The bilateral second molars were subjected to non-design mesial moment and  extrusive force. The bilateral first molars were subjected to a non-designated mesial moment, and the bilateral  first premolars on both sides were subjected to non-designated intrusive force and distal moment. When one  incisor was extracted, attachments on the anterior teeth had a controlling effect on the tooth axis, but the anterior  teeth still tended to tilt. When the bilateral first premolars were extracted, the anterior teeth showed a tendency  for lingual inclination. The risk of distal inclination of the canines and lingual inclination of the central incisor  increased. When the bilateral second premolars were extracted and the posterior teeth were designed to move  mesially, the teeth on both sides of the extraction sites showed an obvious bowing effect. 
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    Real-Time Trajectory Planning for On-road Autonomous Tractor-Trailer Vehicles
    SHEN Qiyue (沈琦越), WANG Bing (王 冰), WANG Chunxiang∗ (王春香)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 722-730.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2362-9
    Abstract387)      PDF(pc) (1546KB)(154)       Save
    Tractor-trailer vehicles, which are composed of a car-like tractor towing a passive trailer, have been widely deployed in the transportation industry, and trajectory planning is a critical step in enabling such a system to drive autonomously. Owing to the properties of being highly nonlinear and nonholonomic with complex dynamics, the tractor-trailer system poses great challenges to the development of motion-planning algorithms. In this study, an indirect trajectory planning framework for a tractor-trailer vehicle under on-road driving is presented to deal with the problem that the traditional planning framework cannot consider the feasibility and quality simultaneously in real-time trajectory generation of the tractor-trailer vehicle. The indirect planning framework can easily handle complicated tractor-trailer dynamics and generate high-quality, obstacle-free trajectory using quintic polynomial spline, speed pro?le optimization, forward simulation, and properly designed cost functions. Simulations under di?erent driving scenarios and trajectories with di?erent driving requirements are conducted to validate the performance of the proposed framework.
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    Parameter Identification of Magic Formula Tire Model Based on Fibonacci Tree Optimization Algorithm
    FENG Shilin (冯世林), ZHAO Youqun (赵又群), DENG Huifan (邓汇凡), WANG Qiuwei(王秋伟), CHEN Tingting (陈婷婷)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 647-657.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2354-9
    Abstract383)      PDF(pc) (1130KB)(110)       Save
    The magic formula (MF) tire model is a semi-empirical tire model that can precisely simulate tire behavior. The heuristic optimization algorithm is typically used for parameter identification of the MF tire model. To avoid the defect of the traditional heuristic optimization algorithm that can easily fall into the local optimum, a parameter identification method based on the Fibonacci tree optimization (FTO) algorithm is proposed, which is used to identify the parameters of the MF tire model. The proposed method establishes the basic structure of the Fibonacci tree alternately through global and local searches and completes optimization accordingly. The global search rule in the original FTO was modified to improve its efficiency. The results of independent repeated experiments on two typical multimodal function optimizations and the parameter identification results showed that FTO was not sensitive to the initial values. In addition, it had a better global optimization performance than genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The root mean square error values optimized with FTO were 5.09%, 10.22%, and 3.98% less than the GA, and 6.04%, 4.47%, and 16.42% less than the PSO in pure lateral and longitudinal forces, and pure aligning torque parameter identi?cation. The parameter identification method based on FTO was found to be effective.
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    Bearing Incipient Fault Detection Method Based on Stochastic Resonance with Triple-Well Potential System
    LIU Ziwen (刘子文), XIAO Lei (肖雷), BAO Jinsong (鲍劲松), TAO Qingbao (陶清宝)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (4): 482-487.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-020-2238-4
    Abstract374)      PDF(pc) (926KB)(150)       Save
    Bearing incipient fault characteristics are always submerged in strong background noise with weak fault characteristics, so that the incipient fault is hard to detect. Stochastic resonance (SR) is accepted to be an effective way to detect the incipient; however, output saturation may occur if bistable SR is adopted. In this paper, a bearing incipient fault detection method is proposed based on triple-well potential system and SR mechanism. The achievement of SR highly replays on the nonlinear system which is adopted a triple-well potential function in this paper. Therefore, the parameters in the nonlinear system are optimized by particle swarm optimization algorithm, and the objective of optimization is to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the fault signal. After optimization, the optimal system parameters are obtained thereby the resonance effect is generated and the bearing incipient fault characteristic is enhanced. The proposed method is validated by simulation verification and engineering application. The results show that the method is effective to detect an incipient signal from heavy background noise and can obtain better outputs compared with bistable SR.

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    Depth Camera-Based Robot-Assisted Ultrasonic Lipolysis System
    YAN Minpeng (严旻芃), CHAI Gang ∗ (柴岗), XIE Le ∗ (谢叻)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (1): 36-44.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2343-z
    Abstract371)      PDF(pc) (1756KB)(34)       Save
    With many advantages such as non-invasive, safe and quick effect, focused ultrasound lipolysis stands out among many fat-removing methods. However, during the whole process, the doctor needs to hold the ultrasound transducer and press it on the patient’s skin with a large pressure for a long time; thus the probability of muscle and bone damage for doctors is greatly increased. To reduce the occurrence of doctors’ occupational diseases, a depth camera-based ultrasonic lipolysis robot system is proposed to realize robot-assisted automatic ultrasonic lipolysis operation. The system is composed of RealSense depth camera, KUKA LBR Med seven-axis robotic arm, PC host, and ultrasonic lipolysis instrument. The whole operation includes two parts: preoperative planning and intraoperative operation. In preoperative planning, the treatment area is selected in the camera image by the doctor; then the system automatically plans uniformly distributed treatment points in the treatment area. At the same time, the skin normal vector is calculated to determine the end posture of the robot, so that the ultrasound transducer can be pressed down in the normal direction of skin. During the intraoperative operation, the robot is controlled to arrive at the treatment point in turn. Meanwhile, the patient’s movement can be detected by the depth camera, and the path of robot is adjusted in real time so that the robot can track the movement of patient, thereby ensuring the accuracy of the ultrasonic lipolysis operation. Finally, the human body model experiment is conducted. The results show that the maximum error of the robot operation is within 5mm, average error is 3.1mm, and the treatment points of the robot operation are more uniform than those of manual operation. Therefore, the system can replace the doctor and achieve autonomous ultrasonic lipolysis to reduce the doctor’s labor intensity.
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    Velocity-Varying Target Tracking of Mobile Sensor Network Based on Flocking Control
    ZHANG Lulu (章露露), DONG Xiangxiang (董祥祥), YAO Lixiu (姚莉秀), CAI Yunze (蔡云泽)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (4): 446-453.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2283-7
    Abstract365)      PDF(pc) (481KB)(119)       Save
    Existing coupled distributed estimation and motion control strategies of mobile sensor networks present limitations in velocity-varying target tracking. Therefore, a velocity-varying target tracking algorithm based on flocking control is proposed herein. The Kalman-consensus filter is utilized to estimate the position, velocity and acceleration of a target. The flocking control algorithm with a velocity-varying virtual leader enables the position of the center of the mobile sensor network to converge to that of the target. By applying an effective cascading Lyapunov method, stability analysis is performed. Simulation results are provided to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm.

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    3D Printing Bioink Preparation and Application in Cartilage Tissue Reconstruction in Vitro
    SUN Binbin (孙彬彬), HAN Yu (韩煜), JIANG Wenbo (姜闻博), DAI Kerong(戴尅戎)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 267-271.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2292-6
    Abstract363)      PDF(pc) (1061KB)(92)       Save
    Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technology has great potential for application in the treatment  of cartilage defects. However, the preparation of biocompatible and stable bioinks is still a major challenge. In  this study, decellularized extracellular matrix (dECM) of soft tissue was used as the basic material to prepare the  bioink. Our results showed that this novel dECM-derived bioink had good printing performance and comprised  a large number of fine nanofibers. Biological characterization revealed that the bioink was compatible with the  growth of chondrocytes and that the nanofibrous structure greatly promoted cell proliferation. Histological and  immunohistochemical analyses showed that the in vitro printed cartilage displayed the presence of characteristic  cartilage lacunae. Thus, a new preparation method for dECM-derived bioink with potential application in generation  of cartilage was developed in this study.
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    Intelligent Connected Vehicle as the New Carrier Towards the Era of Connected World
    ZHUANG Hanyang (庄瀚洋), QIAN Yeqiang (钱烨强), YANG Ming(杨 明)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 559-560.  
    Abstract363)      PDF(pc) (83KB)(179)       Save
    Human beings have been kept pursuing of higher efficiency and better safety to move people and things around since thousands of years ago. In modern soci-ety, vehicles are therefore invented and utilized to boost the speed and enhance the safety. In recent years, rapid development of information technology has brought hu-man into a new era of connected world. Internet and smartphones have made it extremely easy to get ac-cess to anyone from anywhere any time. In this back-ground, intelligent connected vehicles (ICVs) have been proposed and investigated. In the similar manner as the smartphones, ICVs are expected to be the next gener-ation carrier for people to get connected to the world. ICVs are equipped with novel sensors, controllers, and actuators to understand the environment, make decisions, and take actions, respectively. The word “intelligent” indicates that the vehicle should be able to handle unexpected events on the road. The word “connected” means that the information of each vehicle should be shared and considered globally. Full auton-omy and full connection are the ultimate goals of ICV industry. Unfortunately, we are still far away from this goal; therefore, continuous efforts shall be made to step further to this destination. As the ICV consists of multiple subsystems and is across different disciplines, the overall improvement re-quires the innovation in each aspect. Under this cir-cumstance, the Special Issue on Intelligent Connected Vehicle at Journal of Shanghai Jiao Tong University (Science) has been organized to broaden the perspec-tive, promote the interdisciplinary collaboration, and report the state-of-the-art works.
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    Accuracy Assessment of a Novel Radiographic Method to Evaluate Guided Bone Regeneration Outcomes Using a 3D-Printed Model
    SHI Junyu (史俊宇), LI Yuan (李元), ZHANG Xiao (张枭), ZHANG Xiaomeng (张晓梦), LAI Hongchang (赖红昌)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 284-289.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2294-4
    Abstract359)      PDF(pc) (966KB)(143)       Save
    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of a morphological contour  interpolation (MCI) based segmentation method for the volumetric measurement of bone grafts around implants.  Three 3D-printed models (one with a cylinder and two with a geometrically-complex form) were fabricated to  simulate implant placement with a simultaneous guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedure. All models were  scanned using a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) instrument with the same parameters. The true  volumes of the bone grafts in the models were assessed using computer-aided calculation (controls). For the test  measurements, both manual and MCI-based methods were used. A comparison between the measured and true  volumes was performed to evaluate the accuracy. The coefficients of variation of repeated measurements were  calculated to evaluate the reproducibility. In addition, the execution time was recorded and a comparison between  the two methods was performed. The high accuracy of the MCI-based method was found with differences between  the measured value and actual volume, which never exceeded 7.3%. Excellent reproducibility was shown, with  coefficients of variation never exceeding 1.1%. A shorter execution time was observed for the MCI-based method  than for the manual method. Within the confines of this study, the MCI-based method may be suitable for  volumetric measurements of grafted bone around implants.
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    Clinical Observation of 3D Printing Technology in Insoles for Flexible Flatfoot Patients
    WANG Yitian (王一天), JIANG Wenbo (姜闻博), GAN Yaokai, (干耀恺), YU Yang (于洋), DAI Kerong, (戴尅戎)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 398-403.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2311-7
    Abstract357)      PDF(pc) (567KB)(141)       Save
    Flatfoot is defined as the flattening of the medial arch of the foot, and it is classified into flexible  flatfoot and rigid flatfoot based on whether the flattening of the medial arch of the foot can be reset when  standing on toes. The insole is the most basic and common treatment, which is relatively cheaper and easier to  adopt. Three-dimensional (3D) printing, an emerging technology characterized by high machining accuracy and  use of various materials, can be utilised in personalised insoles, which have good application prospects. Further  research on the clinical effects of 3D-printed insoles is still needed. In this study, 64 cases of 3D-printed insoles  were clinically observed. The results showed that 3D-printed insoles had statistically positive effects in treating  flatfoot (P = 0.000 17), and with adjustment and adaptation, their comfort and clinical effect can be improved.  This study provides an empirical reference for further large-scale clinical control research. 
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    Biomechanical Analysis of Personalised 3D-Printed Clavicle Plates of Different Materials to Treat Midshaft Clavicle Fractures
    CHENG Rongshan, (程荣山), JIANG Ziang, (蒋子昂), DIMITRIOU Dimitris, GONG Weihua, (龚伟华), TSAI Tsung-Yuan, (蔡宗远)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 259-266.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2291-7
    Abstract354)      PDF(pc) (1656KB)(320)       Save
    This study was aimed at comparing the biomechanical performance of personalised 3D-printed clavicle  plates of different materials to treat midshaft clavicle fractures with the finite element (FE) method. The FE  model of a fractured clavicle with a personalised 3D-printed clavicle plate and screws was constructed. Three  types of materials were simulated, including stainless steel, titanium alloy, and magnesium alloy. Two loading  conditions (axial compression and inferior bending) were applied at the distal end of the clavicle to simulate arm  abduction. Plate stiffness, peak stress, and bone strain at the clavicle fracture site were measured and compared.  The stiffness of the stainless steel clavicle plate was significantly greater than that of the titanium alloy clavicle  plate. The stiffness of the magnesium alloy clavicle plate was similar to that of the intact clavicle; peak stress  of the magnesium alloy clavicle plate was the lowest; thus, it had less stress-shielding effects on bone formation.  The magnesium alloy clavicle plate was more likely to form bone by distributing proper strain at the clavicle  fracture site. According to the influence of different materials on the tensile strength, magnesium alloy clavicle  plates might be preferred owing to their bionic stiffness in the treatment of patients with a low risk of falling. For  patients who engage in contact sports, a titanium alloy clavicle plate might be more suitable.
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    Physical Characterization of Ionic Liquid-Modified Polyvinyl Alcohol and Sodium Thiocyanate Polymer Electrolytes for Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Application
    AZEMTSOP Manfo Theodore , MEHRA Ram Mohan , KUMAR Yogesh , GUPTA Meenal
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (2): 161-171.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2397-y
    Abstract352)      PDF(pc) (1140KB)(113)       Save
    Novel gel polymer electrolytes (GPEs) composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and sodium thiocyanate were developed via a solution casting technique. An ionic liquid (IL), 1-ethyl-3-methyl-imidazolium tricyanomethanide ([EMIM][TCM]), was doped into a polymer–salt complex system (PVA + NaSCN) to further enhance the conductivity. IL-doped polymer electrolyte (ILDPE) films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), polarized optical microscopy (POM), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements. XRD was performed to check the degree of crystallinity and amorphicity of the ILDPE films, and the amorphicity of GPEs increased with the increase of the IL content. POM was employed to evaluate the changes in the surface morphology due to the inclusion of salt and IL in the PVA. The compositional nature of the GPE films was examined via FTIR studies. The electrical and electrochemical properties were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The maximum conductivity for the GPE film was estimated to be 1.10 × 10-5 S/cm for 6% (mass fraction) of IL in the polymer–salt complex. The ionic transference number was approximately 0.97. An electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) was built from optimized GPE films and reduced graphene oxide-based electrodes. The specific capacitance calculated from the cyclic voltammograms of the EDLC cells was 3 F/g.
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    Strength-Toughness Improvement of 15-5PH Stainless Steel by Double Aging Treatment
    TE Rigele (特日格乐), ZHANG Yutuo, ∗ (张玉妥)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (2): 270-279.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2390-5
    Abstract350)      PDF(pc) (3166KB)(65)       Save
    To obtain better strength-toughness balance of 15-5PH stainless steel, a double aging treatment is proposed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructure evolution. In this study, Cu precipitates and reversed austenite played a determining role to improve strength-toughness combination. The microstructure was observed using electron backscattered diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The volume fractions of Cu precipitates and reversed austenite were calculated with Thermo-Calc software and measured by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that the reversed austenite is formed at the martensitic lath boundaries and its volume fraction also increases with the increase of the aging temperature. At the same time, the size of the Cu precipitates gradually increases. Compared with the traditional single aging and double aging treatment, double aging treatment of 15-5PH stainless steel can increase the toughness while retaining the necessary strength. During double aging of 550 ℃ × 4 h + 580 ℃ × 1 h, 15-5PH stainless steel has the best strength and low-temperature (- 40 ℃) toughness match. Its yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and the Charpy impact energy are 1.037 GPa, 1.086 GPa and 179 J, respectively.
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    Application of 3D Printing and WebGL-Based 3D Visualisation Technology in Imaging Teaching of Ankle Joints
    LI Xiaomin (李小敏), DAI Xiaoqing(戴晓庆), GUO Jiuhong (郭久红), QU Yang (曲扬), WU Bing (吴兵), LIU Siyu (柳思宇), WAN Daqian (万大千), AI Songtao(艾松涛)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (3): 319-324.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2299-z
    Abstract349)      PDF(pc) (344KB)(85)       Save
     With the rapid development of medical technology, 3D printing technology with realistic representation  can perfectly display static human anatomy, while 3D visualisation technology based on Web Graphics Library  (WebGL) can promote the rigid replication characteristics of traditional teaching models and express the dynamic  spatial relationship between different anatomical structures. Medical students traditionally have less cognition of  ankle ligament sprains. In this study, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of  the ankle joints of volunteers were used to print models of the ankle bone, tendon, and ligament using 3D printing  technology, and a real-time interactive 3D digital model of the functional ankle joint was designed using 3D  visualisation based on WebGL and 2D image real-time rendering technology for interactive teaching. The utility  of the 3D printing model combined with the WebGL-based 3D digital teaching model was evaluated in comparison  with traditional teaching methods in 24 medical students. The results showed that the total score of students  in the experimental group (mean ± SD, 79.48 ± 12.93) was significantly better than that of the control group  (61.00±14.94) with P <0.05. The practical test scores of the experimental group (18.00±2.70) were significantly  higher than those of the control group (13.67 ± 4.96) with P < 0.05. In the satisfaction survey, the feedback  questionnaire showed that the interactive teaching model of 3D printing technology combined with WebGL-based  3D visualisation technology was recognised by students in terms of quality and overall satisfaction. In addition,  female students who used 3D printing combined with WebGL-based 3D visualisation technology as learning aids  had a greater difference in practical test scores from the control group than male students. This study has  demonstrated that the interactive teaching mode of 3D printing combined with WebGL-based 3D visualisation  technology is beneficial to the teaching of medical imaging, enriching the learning experience of students, and  increasing the interaction between teachers and students.
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    Dynamic Obstacle Avoidance for Application of Human-Robot Cooperative Dispensing Medicines
    WANG Zheng (王正), XU Hui (许辉), L v Na (吕娜), TAO Wei∗ (陶卫), CHEN Guodong (陈国栋), CHI Wenzheng (迟文正), SUN Lining (孙立宁)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (1): 24-35.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2366-5
    Abstract346)      PDF(pc) (2378KB)(74)       Save
    For safety reasons, in the automated dispensing medicines process, robots and humans cooperate to accomplish the task of drug sorting and distribution. In this dynamic unstructured environment, such as a humanrobot collaboration scenario, the safety of human, robot, and equipment in the environment is paramount. In this work, a practical and effective robot motion planning method is proposed for dynamic unstructured environments. To figure out the problems of blind zones of single depth sensor and dynamic obstacle avoidance, we first propose a method for establishing offline mapping and online fusion of multi-sensor depth images and 3D grids of the robot workspace, which is used to determine the occupation states of the 3D grids occluded by robots and obstacles and to conduct real-time estimation of the minimum distance between the robot and obstacles. Then, based on the reactive control method, the attractive and repulsive forces are calculated and transformed into robot joint velocities to avoid obstacles in real time. Finally, the robot’s dynamic obstacle avoidance ability is evaluated on an experimental platform with a UR5 robot and two KinectV2 RGB-D sensors, and the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified.
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    Camera-Radar Fusion Sensing System Based on Multi-Layer Perceptron
    YAO Tong (姚 彤), WANG Chunxiang(王春香), QIAN Yeqiang(钱烨强)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 561-568.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2345-x
    Abstract345)      PDF(pc) (1189KB)(217)       Save
    Environmental perception is a key technology for autonomous driving. Owing to the limitations of a single sensor, multiple sensors are often used in practical applications. However, multi-sensor fusion faces some problems, such as the choice of sensors and fusion methods. To solve these issues, we proposed a machine learning-based fusion sensing system that uses a camera and radar, and that can be used in intelligent vehicles. First, the object detection algorithm is used to detect the image obtained by the camera; in sequence, the radar data is preprocessed, coordinate transformation is performed, and a multi-layer perceptron model for correlating the camera detection results with the radar data is proposed. The proposed fusion sensing system was verified by comparative experiments in a real-world environment. The experimental results show that the system can effectively integrate camera and radar data results, and obtain accurate and comprehensive object information in front of intelligent vehicles.
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    COVID-19 Interpretable Diagnosis Algorithm Based on a Small Number of Chest X-Ray Samples
    BU Ran (卜冉), XIANG Wei∗ (向伟), CAO Shitong (曹世同)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (1): 81-89.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2393-2
    Abstract343)      PDF(pc) (1470KB)(132)       Save
    The COVID-19 medical diagnosis method based on individual’s chest X-ray (CXR) is achieved difficultly in the initial research, owing to difficulties in identifying CXR data of COVID-19 individuals. At the beginning of the study, infected individuals’ CXRs were scarce. The combination of artificial intelligence (AI) and medical diagnosis has been advanced and popular. To solve the difficulties, the interpretability analysis of AI model was used to explore the pathological characteristics of CXR samples infected with COVID-19 and assist in medical diagnosis. The dataset was expanded by data augmentation to avoid overfitting. Transfer learning was used to test different pre-trained models and the unique output layers were designed to complete the model training with few samples. In this study, the output results of four pre-trained models in three different output layers were compared, and the results after data augmentation were compared with the results of the original dataset. The control variable method was used to conduct independent tests of 24 groups. Finally, 99.23% accuracy and 98% recall rate were obtained, and the visual results of CXR interpretability analysis were displayed. The network of COVID-19 interpretable diagnosis algorithm has the characteristics of high generalization and lightweight. It can be quickly applied to other urgent tasks with insufficient experimental data. At the same time, interpretability analysis brings new possibilities for medical diagnosis.
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    Word Embedding Bootstrapped Deep Active Learning Method to Information Extraction on Chinese Electronic Medical Record
    MA Qunsheng (马群圣), CEN Xingxing (岑星星), YUAN Junyi (袁骏毅), HOU Xumin (侯旭敏)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (4): 494-502.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2285-5
    Abstract341)      PDF(pc) (696KB)(81)       Save
     Electronic medical record (EMR) containing rich biomedical information has a great potential in disease diagnosis and biomedical research. However, the EMR information is usually in the form of unstructured text, which increases the use cost and hinders its applications. In this work, an effective named entity recognition (NER) method is presented for information extraction on Chinese EMR, which is achieved by word embedding bootstrapped deep active learning to promote the acquisition of medical information from Chinese EMR and to release its value. In this work, deep active learning of bi-directional long short-term memory followed by conditional random field (Bi-LSTM+CRF) is used to capture the characteristics of different information from labeled corpus, and the word embedding models of contiguous bag of words and skip-gram are combined in the above model to respectively capture the text feature of Chinese EMR from unlabeled corpus. To evaluate the performance of above method, the tasks of NER on Chinese EMR with “medical history” content were used. Experimental results show that the word embedding bootstrapped deep active learning method using unlabeled medical corpus can achieve a better performance compared with other models.

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    Control System of Two-Wheel Self-Balancing Vehicle
    REN Haoa∗ (任 淏), ZHOU Congb (周 聪)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 713-721.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2361-x
    Abstract339)      PDF(pc) (351KB)(98)       Save
    This study mainly concerns a motion model and the main control algorithm of two-wheel self-balancing vehicle models. Details of the critical parameters fetching and output value of two-wheel self-balancing vehicle models are introduced, including those concerning balance control, speed control and direction control. An improved cascade coupling control scheme is proposed for two-wheel vehicles, based on a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control algorithm. Moreover, a thorough comparison between a classic control system and the improved system is provided, and all aspects thereof are analyzed. It is determined that the control performance of the two-wheel self-balancing vehicle system based on the PID control algorithm is reliable, enabling the vehicle body to maintain balance while moving smoothly along a road at a fast average speed with better practical per-formance.
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    Path Planning and Optimization of Humanoid Manipulator in Cartesian Space
    LI Shiqi (李世其), LI Xiao∗ (李肖), HAN Ke (韩可), XIONG Youjun (熊友军), XIE Zheng (谢铮), CHEN Jinliang (陈金亮)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (5): 614-620.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2416-7
    Abstract338)      PDF(pc) (1591KB)(54)       Save
    To solve the problems of low efficiency and multi-solvability of humanoid manipulator Cartesian space path planning in physical human-robot interaction, an improved bi-directional rapidly-exploring random tree algorithm based on greedy growth strategy in 3D space is proposed. The workspace of manipulator established based on Monte Carlo method is used as the sampling space of the rapidly-exploring random tree, and the opposite expanding greedy growth strategy is added in the random tree expansion process to improve the path planning efficiency. Then the generated path is reversely optimized to shorten the length of the planned path, and the optimized path is interpolated and pose searched in Cartesian space to form a collision-free optimized path suitable for humanoid manipulator motion. Finally, the validity and reliability of the algorithm are verified in an intelligent elderly care service scenario based on Walker2, a large humanoid service robot.
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    Multi-Object Tracking Strategy of Autonomous Vehicle Using Modified Unscented Kalman Filter and Reference Point Switching
    WANG Muyuan∗ (王木塬), WU Xiaodong (吴晓东)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 607-614.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2350-0
    Abstract337)      PDF(pc) (1070KB)(153)       Save
    In this study, a multi-object tracking (MOT) scheme based on a light detection and ranging sensor was proposed to overcome imprecise velocity observations in object occlusion scenarios. By applying real-time velocity estimation, a modified unscented Kalman filter (UKF) was proposed for the state estimation of a target object. The proposed method can reduce the calculation cost by obviating unscented transformations. Additionally, combined with the advantages of a two-reference-point selection scheme based on a center point and a corner point, a reference point switching approach was introduced to improve tracking accuracy and consistency. The state estimation capability of the proposed UKF was verified by comparing it with the standard UKF in single-target tracking simulations. Moreover, the performance of the proposed MOT system was evaluated using real traffic datasets.
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    Integrated Hydraulic-Driven Wearable Robot for Knee Assistance
    ZHAO Yafei (赵亚飞), HUANG Chaoyi (黄超逸), ZOU Yuging(邹玉莹), ZOUKehan(邹可涵), zoU Xiaogang(邹笑阳), XUE .Jiaqi(薛嘉琦), LI Xiaoting(李晓婷), KOH Keng Huat, WANG Xiaojun(王小军), LAI Wai Chiu King(赖伟超), HU Yong(胡勇), XI Ning(席宁), WANG Zheng(王峥)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (3): 289-295.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-023-2602-2
    Abstract335)      PDF(pc) (1156KB)(139)       Save
    Age-related diseases can lead to knee joint misfunction, making knee assistance necessary through the use of robotic wearable braces. However, existing wearable robots face challenges in force transmission and human motion adaptation, particularly among the elderly. Although soft actuators have been used in wearable robots, achieving rapid response and motion control while maintaining portability remains challenging. To address these issues, we propose a soft-robotic knee brace system integrated with multiple sensors and a direct-drive hydraulic actuation system. This approach allows for controlled and rapid force output on the portable hydraulic system. The multi-sensor feedback structure enables the robotic system to collaborate with the human body through human physiological signal and body motion information. The human user tests demonstrate that the knee robot provides assistive torques to the knee joint by being triggered by the electromyography signal and under human motion control.
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    Distribution-Transformed Network for Impulse Noise Removal
    LI Guanyu (李冠玉), ZHANG Fengqin (张凤芹), LIU Qiegen (刘且根)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (4): 543-553.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-020-2203-2
    Abstract334)      PDF(pc) (5279KB)(83)       Save
    This work aims to explore the restoration of images corrupted by impulse noise via distributiontransformed network (DTN), which utilizes convolutional neural network to learn pixel-distribution features from noisy images. Compared with the traditional median-based algorithms, it avoids the complicated pre-processing procedure and directly tackles the original image. Additionally, different from the traditional methods utilizing the spatial neighbor information around the pixels or patches and optimizing in an iterative manner, this work turns to capture the pixel-level distribution information by means of wide and transformed network learning. DTN fits the distribution at pixel-level with larger receptions and more channels. Furthermore, DTN utilities a residual block without batch normalization layer to generate a good estimate. In terms of edge preservation and noise suppression, the proposed DTN consistently achieves significantly superior performance than current state-of-the-art methods, particularly at extreme noise densities.
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    Fabrication and Performance Investigation of Karma Alloy Thin Film Strain Gauge
    LEI Peng (雷鹏), ZHANG Congchun (张丛春), PANG Yawen (庞雅文), YANG Shenyong (杨伸勇), ZHANG Meiju (张梅菊)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (4): 454-462.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2315-3
    Abstract333)      PDF(pc) (1164KB)(176)       Save
    Karma alloy thin film strain gauges were fabricated on alumina substrates by magnetron sputtering. The electrical properties of strain gauges annealed at different temperatures were then tested. The surface morphology and phase structure of the Karma alloy thin films were analyzed using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the annealing temperature on the performance of the Karma alloy thin film strain gauge was also investigated. As the annealing temperature increased, it was found that the resistivity of the thin films decreased, whereas the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the thin films increased. A Karma alloy thin film strain gauge was annealed at 200 °C, thereby obtaining a gauge factor of 1.7 and a corresponding TCR of 64.8 × 10-6 K-1. The prepared Karma alloy thin film strain gauge had a lower TCR than other strain gauges at room temperature. This result can provide a reference for the preparation and application of Karma alloy thin film strain gauges in specific scenarios.
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    Objective Evaluation of Fabric Flatness Grade Based on Convolutional Neural Network
    ZHAN Zhu (占竹), ZHANG Wenjun (张文俊), CHEN Xia (陈霞), WANG Jun (汪军)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (4): 503-510.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-020-2239-3
    Abstract332)      PDF(pc) (1870KB)(69)       Save
     As an important indicator for the appearance and intrinsic quality of textiles, fabric flatness is the immediate cause affecting the aesthetic appearance and performance of textiles. In this paper, the objective evaluation system of fabric flatness based on 3D scanner and convolutional neural network (CNN) is constructed by using the height data of AATCC flatness template. The 3D scanner is responsible for the collection of the height value data of the sample. The effect of different sub-sample cutting sizes, cutting offsets, and network model depths on the objective evaluation coincidence rate of multiple flatness level was studied. The experimental results show that the coincidence rate of the system reaches 98.9% when the collected sample data are cut into subsamples of 20 pixel×20 pixel with 12 pixel cutting offsets and the 11-layer network model is selected. Finally, this scheme is used to evaluate the flatness of four real fabrics with different colors and textures. The result shows
    that all of the samples can achieve a higher coincidence rate, which further verifies the adaptability and stability of the objective evaluation system constructed in this paper for fabric flatness evaluation.

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    Intelligent Driving Assistance System for Safe Expressway Driving in Rainy and Foggy Weather based on IoT
    YAN Beirui (燕北瑞), FANG Cheng (方 成), QIU Hao (邱 昊), ZHU Wenfeng∗ (朱文峰)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (1): 10-19.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-023-2564-4
    Abstract330)      PDF(pc) (2162KB)(52)       Save
    The feature bends and tunnels of mountainous expressways are often affected by bad weather, specifically rain and fog, which significantly threaten expressway safety and traffic efficiency. In order to solve this problem, a vehicle–road coordination system based on the Internet of Things (IoT) is developed that can share vehicle–road information in real time, expand the environmental perception range of vehicles, and realize vehicle–road collaboration. It helps improve traffic safety and efficiency. Further, a vehicle–road cooperative driving assistance system model is introduced in this study, and it is based on IoT for improving the driving safety of mountainous expressways. Considering the influence of rain and fog on driving safety, the interaction between rainfall, water film, and adhesion coefficient is analyzed. An intelligent vehicle–road coordination assistance system is constructed that takes in information on weather, road parameters, and vehicle status, and takes the stopping sight distance model as well as rollover and sideslip model as boundary constraints. Tests conducted on a real expressway demonstrated that the assistance system model is helpful in bad weather conditions. This system could promote intelligent development of mountainous expressways.
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    IoT System for Intelligent Firefighting in the Electric Power Industry
    HE Wei (何 伟)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 686-689.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2358-5
    Abstract325)      PDF(pc) (96KB)(96)       Save
    Traditional ?re safety management in the electric power industry has signi?cant drawbacks, including a lack of data, di?culty of maintenance, lack of supervision, and lack of interaction. This type of management lags behind current advanced safety management concepts such as “gate advancement” and “full process man-agement”, and it fails to meet the needs of future energy internet construction and development. In response to these problems, an internet of things system for smart ?re?ghting in the electric power industry was constructed in this study. This system de?nes a centralized information window, trains a power intelligent ?re?ghting brain, establishes a ?re?ghting cloud management and control system, constructs a power ?re?ghting interaction mech-anism, and performs multi-party coordination of ?re?ghting mechanisms to realize concept of “a whole network on one screen and everything in one network” for managing ?res.
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    Iterative-Reweighting-Based Robust Iterative-Closest-Point Method
    ZHANG Jianlin (张建林), ZHOU Xuejun (周学军), YANG Ming (杨 明)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (5): 739-746.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2364-7
    Abstract322)      PDF(pc) (1614KB)(58)       Save
    In point cloud registration applications, noise and poor initial conditions lead to many false matches. False matches signi?cantly degrade registration accuracy and speed. A penalty function is adopted in many robust point-to-point registration methods to suppress the in?uence of false matches. However, after applying a penalty function, problems cannot be solved in their analytical forms based on the introduction of nonlinearity. Therefore, most existing methods adopt the descending method. In this paper, a novel iterative-reweighting-based method is proposed to overcome the limitations of existing methods. The proposed method iteratively solves the eigenvectors of a four-dimensional matrix, whereas the calculation of the descending method relies on solving an eight-dimensional matrix. Therefore, the proposed method can achieve increased computational e?ciency. The proposed method was validated on simulated noise corruption data, and the results reveal that it obtains higher e?ciency and precision than existing methods, particularly under very noisy conditions. Experimental results for the KITTI dataset demonstrate that the proposed method can be used in real-time localization processes with high accuracy and good e?ciency.
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    Adaptive Human-Robot Collaboration Control Based on Optimal Admittance Parameters
    YU Xinyi (禹鑫燚), WU Jiaxin (吴加鑫), XU Chengjun (许成军), LUO Huizhen (罗惠珍), OU Linlin∗ (欧林林)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2022, 27 (5): 589-601.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2460-3
    Abstract322)      PDF(pc) (1674KB)(108)       Save
    In order to help the operator perform the human-robot collaboration task and optimize the task performance, an adaptive control method based on optimal admittance parameters is proposed. The overall control structure with the inner loop and outer loop is first established. The tasks of the inner loop and outer loop are robot control and task optimization, respectively. Then an inner-loop robot controller integrated with barrier Lyapunov function and radial basis function neural networks is proposed, which makes the robot with unknown dynamics securely behave like a prescribed robot admittance model sensed by the operator. Subsequently, the optimal parameters of the robot admittance model are obtained in the outer loop to minimize the task tracking error and interaction force. The optimization problem of the robot admittance model is transformed into a linear quadratic regulator problem by constructing the human-robot collaboration system model. The model includes the unknown dynamics of the operator and the task performance details. For relaxing the requirement of the system model, the integral reinforcement learning is employed to solve the linear quadratic regulator problem. Besides, an auxiliary force is designed to help the operator complete the specific task better. Compared with the traditional control scheme, the security performance and interaction performance of the human-robot collaboration system are improved. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through two numerical simulations. In addition, a practical human-robot collaboration experiment is carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method.
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    Binary-Sequence Frequency Hopping Communication Method Based on Pseudo-Random Linear Frequency Modulation
    TANG Zhiqiang (唐志强), QUAN Houde (全厚德), SUN Huixian (孙慧贤), CUI Peizhang (崔佩璋)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2021, 26 (4): 534-542.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-020-2250-8
    Abstract320)      PDF(pc) (949KB)(73)       Save
    To improve the signal detection performance of binary-sequence frequency hopping communication when the complementary channel is jammed, a binary-sequence frequency hopping communication system based on pseudo-random liner frequency modulation (LFM) is proposed. The transmitting end uses the chirp signal to carry out the in-band spread spectrum of the binary-sequence frequency hopping signal, and then sends it out through the radio frequency front end. At the receiving end, the received signal is dehopped and processed by fractional Fourier transform. The source information is obtained by sampling decision. Firstly, a binarysequence frequency hopping system model based on pseudo-random LFM is constructed. Secondly, the bit error rate expression of anti-partial band jamming and follower jamming under the Rice channel is derived. The results show that this method has at least 5 dB performance gain than binary sequence frequency hopping for different parameter settings under partial band jamming and follower jamming, and the anti-jamming performance is significantly better than the conventional frequency hopping communication.

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