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    Review of Power-Assisted Lower Limb Exoskeleton Robot
    HE Guisong (贺贵松), HUANG Xuegong (黄学功), LI Feng (李峰), WANG Huixing (汪辉兴)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (1): 1-15.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2489-3
    Abstract381)      PDF(pc) (1195KB)(126)       Save
    Power-assisted lower limb exoskeleton robot is a wearable intelligent robot system involving mechanics,materials, electronics, control, robotics, and many other fields. The system can use external energy to provide additional power to humans, enhance the function of the human body, and help the wearer to bear weight that is previously unbearable. At the same time, employing reasonable structure design and passive energy storage can also assist in specific actions. First, this paper introduces the research status of power-assisted lower limb exoskeleton robots at home and abroad, and analyzes several typical prototypes in detail. Then, the key technologies such as structure design, driving mode, sensing technology, control method, energy management, and human-machine coupling are summarized, and some common design methods of the exoskeleton robot are summarized and compared. Finally, the existing problems and possible solutions in the research of power-assisted lower limb exoskeleton robots are summarized, and the prospect of future development trend has been analyzed.
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    Numerical Study on Separation of Circulating Tumor Cell Using Dielectrophoresis in a Four-Electrode Microfluidic Device
    WANG Yukuna (王雨坤), DING Xiantingb (丁显廷), ZHANG Zhinana (张执南)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 391-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2459-9
    Abstract242)      PDF(pc) (1462KB)(255)       Save
    This numerical study proposes a cell sorting technique based on dielectrophoresis (DEP) in a microfluidic chip. Under the joint effect of DEP and fluid drag, white blood cells and circulating tumor cells are separated because of different dielectric properties. First, the mathematical models of device geometry, single cell, DEP force, electric field, and flow field are established to simulate the cell motion. Based on the simulation model, important boundary parameters are discussed to optimize the cell sorting ability of the device. A proper matching relationship between voltage and flow rate is then provided. The inlet and outlet conditions are also investigated to control the particle motion in the flow field. The significance of this study is to verify the cell separating ability of the microfluidic chip, and to provide a logistic design for the separation of rare diseased cells.
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    Calibration Technology of Optical Fiber Strain Sensor
    CHEN Gang(陈刚), LIU Hongyue(刘宏月), GAO Ruiriang(高瑞翔)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (5): 551-559.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2406-9
    Abstract195)      PDF(pc) (1122KB)(93)       Save
    As one of the hotspots of sensing technology at present, optical fiber sensor has the characteristics of small size, anti-electromagnetic interference, and easy networking, which plays an irreplaceable role in multiphysics parameter monitoring of complex electromagnetic environments. The precise calibration of the optical fiber strain sensor has great practical value in prolonging the survival rate of the sensor, improving the measurement accuracy, and meeting the needs of long-term monitoring. By reviewing the research status of strain sensor calibration method and fiber optic strain sensor calibration method, the advantages and disadvantages of the main methods are analyzed separately from the static and dynamic perspectives, and the development prospect of the calibration technology of optic fiber strain sensor is summarized.
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    Review of Key Technologies for Developing Personalized Lower Limb Rehabilitative Exoskeleton Robots
    TAO Jing, (陶璟), ZHOU Zhenhuan (周振欢)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (1): 16-28.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2452-3
    Abstract194)      PDF(pc) (1179KB)(245)       Save
    Rehabilitative training and assistance to daily living activities play critical roles in improving the life quality of lower limb dyskinesia patients and older people with motor function degeneration. Lower limb rehabilitative exoskeleton has a promising application prospect in support of the above population. In this paper, critical technologies for developing lower limb rehabilitative exoskeleton for individualized user needs are identi- fied and reviewed, including exoskeleton hardware modularization, bionic compliant driving, individualized gait planning and individual-oriented motion intention recognition. Inspired by the idea of servitization, potentials in exoskeleton product-service system design and its enabling technologies are then discussed. It is suggested that future research will focus on exoskeleton technology and exoskeleton-based service development oriented to an individual’s physical features and personalized requirements to realize better human-exoskeleton coordination in terms of technology, as well as accessible and high-quality rehabilitation and living assistance in terms of utility.
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    Establishment of a Refined Brain Model for Evaluating Implantation Behavior of Neural Electrode and Research of its Simulated Behavior
    HE Yuxcin (贺雨欣), ZHANG Wenguang (张文光), XU Haotian (胥浩天), XU Yifan (徐倚帆), XU Liyue (许李悦)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 401-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2523-5
    Abstract178)      PDF(pc) (1512KB)(104)       Save
    The long-term reliability of the neural electrode is closely related to its implantation behavior. In orderto realize the quantitative research of the implantation behavior in a low-cost and accurate way, a refined brainmodel containing meninges is proposed. First, the expected simulation material was selected through measuringthe elastic modulus based on the method of atomic force microscope indentation technique. As a result, the 2%(mass fraction) agarose gel simulated the gray and white matter, the 7 : 1 (volume ratio) polydimethylsiloxane(PDMS) sheet simulated the pia mater, and the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film simulated the dura mater. Second,based on designing a three-layer structure mold, the brain model was prepared by inverted pouring to realizea flat implantation surface. Finally, the simulation behavior of the brain model was investigated with the ratbrain as a reference. For mechanical behavior of implantation, the implantation force experienced two peaks bothin the brain model and the rat brain, maximum values of which were 10.17 mN and 7.69 mN respectively. Thelarger implantation force in the brain model will increase the strength requirement for the electrode, but reducethe risk of buckling of that in practical application. For humoral dissolution behavior, the dissolution rates ofthe polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating of the electrode in the brain model and rat brain were 7 000 μm3/s and5 600 μm3/s, respectively. The faster dissolution rate in the brain model will cause the larger thickness of thecoating design but provide sufficient implantable time in practical application. The establishment of the brainmodel and the research of its simulated behavior are beneficial to the size design of the electrode substrate andcoating, and research of the implantation mechanism, and further increase the functional life of the electrode.
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    Real-Time Calculation Method for Temperature Distribution of Temperature-Controlled Radiofrequency Ablation
    WANG Xuewei (王雪维),WANG Yifei (王逸飞),ZHANG Aili* (张爱丽)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 411-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2481-y
    Abstract174)      PDF(pc) (1220KB)(78)       Save
    Precise temperature control and temperature distribution prediction are of great significance forradiofrequency ablation. This research proposes a real-time calculation method for the temperature distribution of radiofrequency ablation combined with proportional-integral temperature control. The thermo-electricalcoupling was simplified into a linear relationship based on the study of the influence of temperature-dependentelectrical conductivity and thermal conductivity on the PI-controlled radiofrequency ablation temperature distribution, which increases the computational efficiency by 150 times. The average calculation time for radiofrequencyablation of 10 min is about 23 s, and the difference between the calculation results of this method and that fromCOMSOL Multiphysics is no more than 1 ?C. This method is not only used for single-probe, but also for doubleprobe radiofrequency ablation in this paper.
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    Entity Relationship Explanation via Conceptualization
    XIE Chenhao(谢晨昊), LIANG Jiaqing(梁家卿), XIA Yanghua(肖仰华), HWANG Seung-won
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (6): 695-702.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2394-1
    Abstract170)      PDF(pc) (608KB)(106)       Save
    Finding an attribute to explain the relationships between a given pair of entities is valuable in many applications. However, many direct solutions fail, owing to its low precision caused by heavy dependence on text and low recall by evidence scarcity. Thus, we propose a generalization-and-inference framework and implement it to build a system: entity-relationship finder (ERF). Our main idea is conceptualizing entity pairs into proper concept pairs, as intermediate random variables to form the explanation. Although entity conceptualization has been studied, it has new challenges of collective optimization for multiple relationship instances, joint optimization for both entities, and aggregation of diluted observations into the head concepts defining the relationship. We propose conceptualization solutions and validate them as well as the framework with extensive experiments.
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    Early Detection Methods of Deep Tissue Pressure Injuries: A Systematic Review
    JIA Jingyil (贾菁怡),LI Zhengyi1,2 (李正裔),PENG Linjing1 (彭琳晶),YAO Yifeil* (姚怡飞)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 526-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2518-2
    Abstract167)      PDF(pc) (552KB)(133)       Save
    Deep tissue pressure injuries (DTPIs) have witnessed a growing prevalence in hospitals and other health care units especially among individuals with pathological conditions that give rise to restricted mobility, impaired sensation, and reduced tissue tolerance. The etiology of DTPIs has been a subject of controversy, to which several explanatory models have been proposed, including direct mechanical insult, ischemia-reperfusion, lymphatic occlusion, and inflammatory cytokines. In line with these pathophysiological scenarios, ultrasound, subepidermal moisture detection, and biomarker technologies have been proposed as potential early detection methods of DTPIs. This paper provides a systematic review involving these three methods. The conclusion is that combining and implementing these methods at different time periods during DTPIs development and progression respectively is likely to be the most universal, effective and promising way for DTPIs diagnosis.
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    Substrate Stiffness and Topography Affect the Morphology of Human Fibroblasts in Mechanical Microenvironment
    LIU Yang-,2 (刘阳), WANG Yajing- (王雅靖),WEN Daweil (温大渭),ZHANG Quanyoul (张全有), WANG Li (王立),AN Meiwen1* (安美文), LIU Yong3* (刘勇)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 495-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2542-2
    Abstract145)      PDF(pc) (1268KB)(30)       Save
    Hyperplastic scar is a common fibrotic disease that may ultimately lead to severe dysfunction anddeformity, causing physical and psychological distress. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the effect of the mechanicalmicroenvironment of scar substrates on the morphology of human fibroblasts (HFbs). The micro-modular fabrication technique was used to design a new cross-groove topology and to construct four elastic substrates withthe stiffness of 19.3 kPa and 90.1 kPa coupled with parallel groove and cross groove, respectively, to simulate themechanical microenvironment of skin wounds and scar tissues. The morphological changes in HFbs in differentsubstrates were observed, and the changes in the cell-long axis length, area, and the angle between cell-long axisand grooves were recorded. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to observe the distribution of microfilaments. The results indicated that substrate stiffness and topography affected the morphology of HFbs. The cellswere elongated in parallel grooves as well as in the area where cross grooves restricted groove length, the celllength was restricted, and the angle between the long axis and the groove was increased. The topography exertedno significant effect on the cell area, but the cell area increased with increasing the stiffness. The parallel groovepromoted the expression of the F-actin to a certain extent, and the fluorescence intensity of F-actin decreased withincreasing the stiffness. Studying the effect of the mechanical microenvironment of substrates on HFb morphologyis of great importance for understanding the mechanisms of scar formation and prevention.
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    Improving Colonoscopy Polyp Detection Rate Using Semi-Supervised Learning
    YAO Leyul (姚乐宇),HE Fan1,3 (何凡), PENG Haixia2* (彭海霞), WANG Xiaofeng2 (王晓峰),ZHOU Lu2(周璐), HUANG Xiaolin1,3* (黄晓霖)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 441-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2519-1
    Abstract143)      PDF(pc) (497KB)(74)       Save
    Colorectal cancer is one of the biggest health threats to humans and takes thousands of lives every year.Colonoscopy is the gold standard in clinical practice to inspect the intestinal wall, detect polyps and remove polypsin early stages, preventing polyps from becoming malignant and forming colorectal cancer instances. In recentyears, computer-aided polyp detection systems have been widely used in colonoscopies to improve the qualityof colonoscopy examination and increase the polyp detection rate. Currently, the most efficient computer-aidedsystems are built with machine learning methods. However, developing such a computer-aided detection systemrequires experienced doctors to label a large number of image data from colonoscopy videos, which is extremelytime-consuming, laborious and expensive. One possible solution is to adopt a semi-supervised learning, which canbuild a detection system on a dataset where part of its data is not necessary to be labeled. In this paper, on thebasis of state-of-the-art object detection method and semi-supervised learning technique, we design and implementa semi-supervised colonoscopy polyp detection system containing four main steps: running standard supervisedtraining with all labeled data; running inference on unlabeled data to obtain pseudo labels; applying a set ofstrong augmentation to both unlabeled data and pseudo label; combining labeled data, and unlabeled data withits pseudo labels to retrain the detector. The semi-supervised learning system is evaluated both on public datasetand our original private dataset and proves its effectiveness. Also, the inference speed of the semi-supervisedlearning system can meet the requirement of real-time operation.
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    Journal's online articles can be found at SpringerLink
    Online publication is equivalent to paper publication which can also be indexed in the database of EI Village approximately one month after the online date. Paper publications will be printed within around one year after online publication (content cannot be changed). The link is Online First Articles in our journal:
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci   
    Accepted: 21 December 2023

    Dlung: Unsupervised Few-Shot Diffeomorphic Respiratory Motion Modeling
    CHEN Peizhi1,2* (陈培芝), GUO Yifan1 (郭逸凡),WANG Dahan1,2 (王大寒), CHEN Chinling1,3,4* (陈金铃)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 536-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2525-3
    Abstract133)      PDF(pc) (1720KB)(83)       Save
    Lung image registration plays an important role in lung analysis applications, such as respiratory motion modeling. Unsupervised learning-based image registration methods that can compute the deformation without the requirement of supervision attract much attention. However, it is noteworthy that they have two drawbacks: they do not handle the problem of limited data and do not guarantee diffeomorphic (topologypreserving) properties, especially when large deformation exists in lung scans. In this paper, we present an unsupervised few-shot learning-based diffeomorphic lung image registration, namely Dlung. We employ fine-tuning techniques to solve the problem of limited data and apply the scaling and squaring method to accomplish the diffeomorphic registration. Furthermore, atlas-based registration on spatio-temporal (4D) images is performed and thoroughly compared with baseline methods. Dlung achieves the highest accuracy with diffeomorphic properties. It constructs accurate and fast respiratory motion models with limited data. This research extends our knowledge of respiratory motion modeling.
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    Boosting Unsupervised Domain Adaptation with Soft Pseudo-Label and Curriculum Learning
    ZHANG Shengjia(张晟嘉), LIN Tiancheng(林天成), XU Yi(徐奕)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (6): 703-716.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2487-5
    Abstract128)      PDF(pc) (963KB)(78)       Save
    By leveraging data from a fully labeled source domain, unsupervised domain adaptation (UDA) improves classification performance on an unlabeled target domain through explicit discrepancy minimization of data distribution or adversarial learning. As an enhancement, category alignment is involved during adaptation to reinforce target feature discrimination by utilizing model prediction. However, there remain unexplored problems about pseudo-label inaccuracy incurred by wrong category predictions on target domain, and distribution deviation caused by overfitting on source domain. In this paper, we propose a model-agnostic two-stage learning framework, which greatly reduces flawed model predictions using soft pseudo-label strategy and avoids overfitting on source domain with a curriculum learning strategy. Theoretically, it successfully decreases the combined risk in the upper bound of expected error on the target domain. In the first stage, we train a model with distribution alignment-based UDA method to obtain soft semantic label on target domain with rather high confidence. To avoid overfitting on source domain, in the second stage, we propose a curriculum learning strategy to adaptively control the weighting between losses from the two domains so that the focus of the training stage is gradually shifted from source distribution to target distribution with prediction confidence boosted on the target domain. Extensive experiments on two well-known benchmark datasets validate the universal effectiveness of our proposed framework on promoting the performance of the top-ranked UDA algorithms and demonstrate its consistent superior performance.
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    Novel Visualization Tool for Percutaneous Renal Puncture Training Using Augmented Reality Technology
    YU Jiaqi1 (于佳琪),WANG Shuyi1* (王殊轶),WANG Yuqil (王浴屺),XIE Hua2 (谢华), WU Zhangleil (吴张檑),FU Xiaonil (付小妮),MA Bangfeng1 (马邦峰)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 517-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2554-y
    Abstract119)      PDF(pc) (1512KB)(92)       Save
    We aim to develop a novel visualization tool for percutaneous renal puncture training based on augmented reality (AR) and compare the needle placement performance of this AR system with ultrasound-guidedfreehand navigation in phantoms. A head-mounted display-based AR navigation system was developed usingthe Unity3D software and Visual Studio to enable the overlay of the preoperative needle path and the complexanatomical structures onto a phantom in real time. The spatial location of the stationary phantom and the percutaneous instrument motion were traced by a Qualisys motion capture system. To evaluate the tracking accuracy,15 participants (7 males and 8 females) performed a single needle insertion using AR navigation (the number ofpunctures n = 75) and ultrasound-guided freehand navigation (n = 75). The needle placement error was measuredas the Euclidean distance between the actual needle tip and the virtual target by MicronTracker. All participantsdemonstrated a superior needle insertion efficiency when using the AR-assisted puncture method compared withthe ultrasound-guided freehand method. The needle insertion error of the ultrasound-guided method showed anincreased error compared with the AR method (5.54 mm ± 2.59 mm, 4.34 mm ± 2.10 mm, respectively, p < 0.05).The ultrasound-guided needle placements showed an increased time compared with the AR method (19.08 s ±3.59 s, 15.14 s ± 2.72 s, respectively, p < 0.000 1). Our AR training system facilitates the needle placement performance and solves hand-eye coordination problems. The system has the potential to increase efficiency andeffectiveness of percutaneous renal puncture training.
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    Transfer Learning in Motor Imagery Brain Computer Interface: A Review
    LI Mingai1,2,3∗ (李明爱), XU Dongqin1 (许东芹)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (1): 37-59.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2488-4
    Abstract115)      PDF(pc) (1734KB)(33)       Save
    Transfer learning, as a new machine learning methodology, may solve problems in related but different domains by using existing knowledge, and it is often applied to transfer training data from another domain for model training in the case of insufficient training data. In recent years, an increasing number of researchers who engage in brain-computer interface (BCI), have focused on using transfer learning to make most of the available electroencephalogram data from different subjects, effectively reducing the cost of expensive data acquisition and labeling as well as greatly improving the learning performance of the model. This paper surveys the development of transfer learning and reviews the transfer learning approaches in BCI. In addition, according to the “what to transfer” question in transfer learning, this review is organized into three contexts: instance-based transfer learning, parameter-based transfer learning, and feature-based transfer learning. Furthermore, the current transfer learning applications in BCI research are summarized in terms of the transfer learning methods, datasets, evaluation performance, etc. At the end of the paper, the questions to be solved in future research are put forward, laying the foundation for the popularization and in-depth research of transfer learning in BCI.
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    Applications of Polypeptide Hydrogels in Cartilage-Regeneration Engineering
    HU Yinghan1 (胡颖涵),ZHU Zegu1 (朱泽宇), TENG Lin2 (滕林), HE Yushi3 (何雨石),ZOU Derong1 (邹德荣),LU Jiayu1*(陆家瑜)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 468-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2507-5
    Abstract110)      PDF(pc) (3066KB)(79)       Save
    Articular cartilage defects are considered to be associated with the development of osteoarthritis. Research on relevant tissue regeneration is important in the treatment of osteoarthritis. The scaffolds applied incartilage regeneration should have good histocompatibility and mechanical properties, as well as no cytotoxicity,and promote the proliferation and differentiation of seed cells. Different combinations of peptide sequences inpolypeptide hydrogels endow them with unique characteristics including excellent biodegradability and accuratesimulation of the extracellular matrix of chondrocytes to maintain the stability of the chondrogenic phenotypeand facilitate articular hyaline cartilage regeneration. Thus, the application of polypeptide hydrogels for cartilage regeneration has a bright future. In this study, the research progress of polypeptide hydrogels used incartilage-regeneration engineering is systematically reviewed. The characteristics, limitations, and prospects ofthese materials are evaluated.
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    Novel Scheme for Essential Proteins Identification Based on Improved Multicriteria Decision Making
    LU Pengli1* (卢鹏丽),CHEN Yuntian1 (陈云天), LIAO Yonggang2 (廖永刚)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 418-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-023-2584-0
    Abstract109)      PDF(pc) (1360KB)(66)       Save
    Identifying essential proteins from protein-protein interaction networks is important for studies onbiological evolution and new drug’s development. Most of the presented criteria for prioritizing essential proteinsonly focus on a certain attribute of the proteins in the network, which suffer from information loss. In order toovercome this problem, a relatively comprehensive and effective novel method for essential proteins identificationbased on improved multicriteria decision making (MCDM), called essential proteins identification-technique fororder preference by similarity to ideal solution (EPI-TOPSIS), is proposed. First, considering different attributes ofproteins, we propose three methods from different aspects to evaluate the significance of the proteins: gene-degreecentrality (GDC) for gene expression sequence; subcellular-neighbor-degree centrality (SNDC) and subcellular-indegree centrality (SIDC) for subcellular location information and protein complexes. Then, betweenness centrality(BC) and these three methods are considered together as the multiple criteria of the decision-making model.Analytic hierarchy process is used to evaluate the weights of each criterion, and the essential proteins are prioritizedby an ideal solution of MCDM, i.e., TOPSIS. Experiments are conducted on YDIP, YMIPS, Krogan and BioGRIDnetworks. The results indicate that EPI-TOPSIS outperforms several state-of-the-art approaches for identifyingthe essential proteins through the performance measures.
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    Gene Expression Profiling Identifies Potential Biomarkers for Colorectal Cancer Using NanoString nCounter Assay
    ZHAO Hui (赵晖),WEN Baiqing (文柏清),KANG Yani*(康亚妮)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 432-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2440-7
    Abstract108)      PDF(pc) (627KB)(67)       Save
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Development of predictivemolecular markers may help to achieve the best outcome in clinic. The purpose of this study is to identify thedifferentially expressed genes and new potential predictive and prognostic molecular biomarkers for CRC. Inthis study, CRC and matched normal tissues acquired from the same patient were used to extract total RNA.The NanoString nCounter assay was applied to determine the differentially expressed genes. The results werethen validated by using the Cancer Genome Atlas data. Finally, we identified 27 genes that revealed significantcorrelation with CRC in the tumor tissue. Several genes in the pan-cancer panel showed significant differentialexpression, which were more universal than others in the CRC tissue. Since some of them have not been reportedas being directly related to CRC yet, future mechanism studies can be designed based on this study. Our studydemonstrated NanoString nCounter assay could serve as an alternative approach for gene expression analysis andidentified several unreported differently expressed genes in CRC patients, which may provide some importantclues for more in-depth study of CRC and serve as potential predictive molecular biomarkers for clinical diagnosisapplication.
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    High Curvature Stripe Profile Extraction Algorithm of Line Structured Light Measuring System
    SUN Hao (孙昊), DU Xuan (杜宣), LÜ Na(吕娜), CUI Bin(崔斌), ZHA Hui(赵辉)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (5): 560-568.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2476-8
    Abstract108)      PDF(pc) (1375KB)(79)       Save
    In the line structured light measuring system, the accuracy of the process of laser stripe directly affects the measurement results. Therefore, the extraction algorithm for the laser stripe, especially the surface with high reflection and high curvature, is very important. The imaging principle of line structured light, the light intensity distribution law of laser stripe and the extraction algorithm have been studied, and a stripe profile extraction method based on real light intensity distribution has been proposed. In this algorithm, fast region of interest extraction, stripe width estimation, and adaptive filtering on the striped image are performed. Then the energy center of the stripe at the sub-pixel level is extracted. Finally, the low-quality center points are eliminated, and the context information is used to recover the missing central points. Simulated images generated based on the imaging principle of line structured light and real experimental images were used to evaluate the accuracy and repeatability of the proposed method. The results show that the method behaves excellently at the edges of high-curvature stripes; the maximum error is only 1.6 pixels, which is 1/10 of the classic Steger algorithm; the experiment repeatability is only 8.8 μm, which is 2.7 times that of the Steger method. Therefore, the proposed method improves the accuracy of object contour extraction, and it is especially suitable for contour detection of objects with high curvature.
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    Parameter Optimization and Precision Enhancement of Dual-Coil Eddy Current Sensor
    ZHANG Zhenning1(张振宁),LIU Qiang2(刘强), Lü Chunfeng3(吕春峰),MAO Yimeil(毛义梅),TAo Weil(陶卫),ZHAO Huil*(赵辉)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (5): 596-603.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2511-9
    Abstract104)      PDF(pc) (948KB)(59)       Save
    To enhance the measurement precision of eddy current sensor in particular environments such as extreme temperature changes and limited available space in aerospace, we optimized the structural parameters of the traditional dual-coil eddy current sensor probe by electromagnetic field analysis and finite element simulation modeling, and further presented the criteria for determining the optimal coil distance of the dual-coil probe. The simulation results are verified by setting up an experimental platform. For the extreme temperature environment, the displacement measurement error caused by the full range temperature variation of the dual-coil sensor under the optimal distance is less than 21.0% of that of the single-coil sensor. On this basis, we analyzed and verified the thermal stability of the structurally optimized dual-coil eddy current sensor. After temperature compensation, the displacement measurement accuracy can reach 14.9 times more accurate than that of the single-coil sensor. The method proposed in this paper can provide a design reference for the structural optimization of the axial dual-coil eddy current sensor probe.
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    Numerical Study of Bifurcated Blood Flow in Three Different Blood Viscosity Models
    WU Hui(吴 辉), FU Rongchang* (富荣昌), YANG Xiaoyu (杨晓玉), LI Xianzheng (李现政), WANG Zhaoyao (王召耀)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 450-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2512-8
    Abstract99)      PDF(pc) (1759KB)(55)       Save
    This study aimed to analyze the hemodynamic effects of bifurcated vessels using different bloodviscosity models. Three-dimensional models of bifurcated vessels in the popliteal artery were constructed basedon CT images, and hemodynamic parameters of the Newtonian, Casson, and two-phase models were calculatedby the computational fluid dynamics method. Blood flowed through the popliteal artery. Blood flow velocitychanged after the bifurcated vessel, with accelerated blood flow velocity in the anterior tibial artery. A lowvelocity vortex region with a region of low wall shear stress (WSS) was generated outside the bifurcated vessel.Local non-Newtonian importance factors of great than 1 (i.e., IL > 1) occurred during the cardiac cycle, andIL > 1.75 occurred at the beginning and end of the cycle. Compared with the Casson and two-phase models, theNewtonian model has a larger vortex region and lower WSS. Low-velocity vortex regions and low WSS regionsin the bifurcated vessels may contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Blood exhibited non-Newtonianfluid properties in bifurcated vessels (IL > 1), and the effect of non-Newtonian properties was more pronouncedat the beginning and end of heartbeats (IL > 1.75). The Newtonian model predicts a higher risk of atherosclerosisformation and the effect of non-Newtonian properties of blood should be considered in hemodynamic studies.
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    Review on Anti-Frost Technology Based on Microchannel Heat Exchanger
    YE Zhenhong(叶振鸿), WANG Wei(王炜), LI Xinhua(李新华), CHEN Jiangping(陈江平)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (2): 161-178.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2539-x
    Abstract97)      PDF(pc) (4397KB)(68)       Save
    Frosting is an inevitable adverse phenomenon in many fields such as industrial refrigeration, cryogenics, and heat pump air conditioning, which may influence the efficiency of the equipment and increase the energy consumption of the system. The complicated louvered-fin structure and fluid-channels arrangements of the microchannel heat exchanger (HEX) will affect the heat transfer performance and frosting characteristics. First, this article analyzes different factors such as refrigerant distribution, refrigerant flow pattern, and HEX surface temperature distribution. Further, combined with the features of the microchannel HEX, the existing anti-frosting technologies and various methods of surface treatment for anti-frosting are summarized. The review focuses on the preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces and their superior properties. Furthermore, the internal mechanism is analyzed in conjunction with the relevant research of our group. Superhydrophobic character has excellent anti-frosting performance and heat transfer performance, which is of great significance for improving energy-saving and system performance. Finally, the future development of superhydrophobic surface technology is analyzed and prospected.
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    Numerical Simulation Method of Scoliosis Orthosis Considering Muscle Factor
    LI Jian1,2(李健),ZHU Ye1 (朱晔),GUAN Tianmin1*(关天民)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 486-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2535-1
    Abstract88)      PDF(pc) (1382KB)(87)       Save
    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis seriously affects the physical and mental health of adolescents. In thepast, the research on therapeutic orthosis ignored the influence of muscle factors. Aimed at this problem, basedon the principle of reverse engineering, through the spine computed tomography data model of three-dimensionalreconstruction, muscle forces around the spine are imported into the spinal muscle force model and AnyBodysoftware is used for simulation. The geometric similarity and biomechanical effectiveness of the established modelare verified. In order to obtain the relationship among the applied orthopedic force, Cobb angle and vertebraldisplacement, a finite element model conforming to spinal anatomy is established, and then the biomechanicalanalysis of the finite element model of the scoliosis is carried out. Reasonable control of paravertebral muscles canplay a positive role in orthopedic treatment, and the fitting equation can provide a reference for doctors to applythe orthopedic force on patient.
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    High Curvature Stripe Profile Extraction Algorithm of Line Structured Light Measuring System
    CHEN Qiheng1(陈启恒),PENG Na2(彭娜),Lü Na1(吕娜),TAO Wei(陶卫),ZHAO Huil*(赵辉)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (5): 577-586.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2414-9
    Abstract88)      PDF(pc) (1586KB)(45)       Save
    Non-uniformity of light sources is one of the inevitable error factors causing poor shape recovery accuracy of photometric stereo methods under close-range lighting with quasi point lights. Semi-calibrated photometric stereo methods are required to avoid repeated, tedious and impractical photometric calibration. In this paper, two simple, concise but effective mesh-based semi-calibrated photometric stereo methods are proposed. The proposed methods extend the traditional mesh-based photometric stereo methods and further allow joint and accurate estimation of normals and non-uniform light intensities by alternatively updating normals, depth maps and intensities. Extensive experiments are conducted to validate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed algorithms. Even under extremely severe non-uniform lighting, the proposed methods can still suppress the error and improve the shape recovery accuracy by up to 65.6% in real-world experiments.
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    Hysteresis Modeling and Compensation for Distal Shaft Deflection of Flexible Ureteroscope
    HUA Penga (华鹏), SHU Xiongpenga (舒雄鹏),XIE Lea,b* (谢叻)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 507-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2505-7
    Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (1652KB)(50)       Save
    Flexible ureteroscopy (FURS) has been widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of upper urinarytract diseases. The key operation of FURS is that the surgeon manipulates the distal shaft of flexible ureteroscopeto a specific target for diagnosis and treatment. However, the hysteresis of flexible ureteroscope may be one ofthe most important factors that degrade the manipulation accuracy and the surgeon usually spends a long timenavigating the distal shaft during surgery. In this study, we obtained hysteresis curves of distal shaft deflectionfor the flexible ureteroscope through extensive repeated experiments. Then, two methods based on piecewiselinear approximation and long short-term memory neural network were employed to model the hysteresis curves.On this basis, we proposed two hysteresis compensation strategies for the distal shaft deflection. Finally, wecarried out hysteresis compensation experiments to verify the two proposed compensation strategies. Experimentalresults showed that the hysteresis compensation strategies can significantly improve position accuracy with meancompensation errors of no more than 5?.
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    Time-Resolved Imaging in Short-Wave Infrared Region
    XU Yang (徐杨), LI Wanwan∗ (李万万)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (1): 29-36.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2547-x
    Abstract87)      PDF(pc) (810KB)(39)       Save
    Compared with the conventional first near-infrared (NIR-I, 700—900 nm) window, the short-wave infrared region (SWIR, 900—1 700 nm) possesses the merits of the increasing tissue penetration depths and the suppression of scattering background, leading to great potential for in vivo imaging. Based on the limitations of the common spectral domain, and the superiority of the time-dimension, time-resolved imaging eliminates the auto-fluorescence in the biological tissue, thus supporting higher signal-to-noise ratio and sensitivities. The imaging technique is not affected by the difference in tissue composition or thickness and has the practical value of quantitative in vivo detection. Almost all the relevant time-resolved imaging was carried out around lanthanide-doped upconversion nanomaterials, owing to the advantages of ultralong luminescence lifetime, excellent photostability, controllable morphology, easy surface modification and various strategies of regulating lifetime. Therefore, this review presents the research progress of SWIR time-resolved imaging technology based on nanomaterials doped with lanthanide ions as luminescence centers in recent years.
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    CT Image Segmentation Method of Composite Material Based on Improved Watershed Algorithm and U-Net Neural Network Model
    XUE Yongboa (薛永波),LIU Zhaob (刘钊), LI Zeyanga (李泽阳),ZHU Pinga* (朱平)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (6): 783-792.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2385-2
    Abstract81)      PDF(pc) (1655KB)(30)       Save
    In the study of the composite materials performance, X-ray computed tomography (XCT) scanning has always been one of the important measures to detect the internal structures. CT image segmentation technology will effectively improve the accuracy of the subsequent material feature extraction process, which is of great significance to the study of material performance. This study focuses on the low accuracy problem of image segmentation caused by fiber cross-section adhesion in composite CT images. In the core layer area, area validity is evaluated by morphological indicator and an iterative segmentation strategy is proposed based on the watershed algorithm. In the transition layer area, a U-net neural network model trained by using artificial labels is applied to the prediction of segmentation result. Furthermore, a CT image segmentation method for fiber composite materials based on the improved watershed algorithm and the U-net model is proposed. It is verified by experiments that the method has good adaptability and effectiveness to the CT image segmentation problem of composite materials, and the accuracy of segmentation is significantly improved in comparison with the original method, which ensures the accuracy and robustness of the subsequent fiber feature extraction process
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    Gas Exchange Mechanism of High Frequency Ventilation: A Brief Narrative Review and Prospect
    YUAN Yueyang1* (袁越阳),CHEN Yuqing2 (陈宇清),ZHOU Lil(周理), LIU Wei3 (刘炜), DAI Zheng3(戴 征)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 546-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2424-7
    Abstract74)      PDF(pc) (466KB)(30)       Save
    The high frequency ventilation (HFV) can well support the breathing of respiratory patient with 20%—40% of normal tidal volume. Now as a therapy of rescue ventilation when conversional ventilation failed, the HFV has been applied in the treatments of severe patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), etc. However, the gas exchange mechanism (GEM) of HFV is still not fully understood by researchers. In this paper, the GEM of HFV is reviewed to track the studies in the last decades and prospect for the next likely studies. And inspired by previous studies, the GEM of HFV is suggested to be continually developed with various hypotheses which will be testified in simulation, experiment and clinic trail. One of the significant measures is to study the GEM of HFV under the cross-disciplinary integration of medicine and engineering. Fully understanding the GEM can theoretically support and expand the applications of HFV, and is helpful in investigating the potential indications and contraindications of HFV.
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    Stagewise Training for Hybrid-Distorted Image Restoration
    HOU Shujuan* (侯舒娟),ZHU Wenping (朱文萍),LI Hai (李海)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (6): 793-801.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2453-2
    Abstract73)      PDF(pc) (1221KB)(28)       Save
    Image restoration is the problem of restoring a real degraded image. Previous studies mostly focused on single distortion. However, most of the real images experience multiple distortions, and single distortion image restoration algorithms can not effectively improve the image quality. Moreover, few existing hybrid distortion image restoration algorithms can not deal with single distortion. Therefore, an end-to-end pipeline network based on stagewise training is proposed in this paper. Specifically, the network selects three typical image restoration tasks: denoising, inpainting, and super resolution. The whole training process is divided into single distortion training, hybrid distortion training of two types, and hybrid distortion training of three types. The design of loss function draws on the idea of deep supervision. Experimental results prove that the proposed method is not only superior to other methods in hybrid-distorted image restoration, but also suitable for single distortion image restoration.
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    Multiple Detection Model Fusion Framework for Printed Circuit Board Defect Detection
    WU Xingl(武星), ZHANG Qingfeng(张庆丰), WANG Jianjia(王健嘉), YAO Junfeng(姚骏峰), Guo Yike.(郭毅可)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (6): 717-727.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2471-0
    Abstract73)      PDF(pc) (1870KB)(47)       Save
    The printed circuit board (PCB) is an indispensable component of electronic products, which determines the quality of these products. With the development and advancement of manufacturing technology, the layout and structure of PCB are getting complicated. However, there are few effective and accurate PCB defect detection methods. There are high requirements for the accuracy of PCB defect detection in the actual production environment, so we propose two PCB defect detection frameworks with multiple model fusion including the defect detection by multi-model voting method (DDMV) and the defect detection by multi-model learning method (DDML). With the purpose of reducing wrong and missing detection, the DDMV and DDML integrate multiple defect detection networks with different fusion strategies. The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed framework are verified with extensive experiments on two open-source PCB datasets. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DDMV and DDML are better than any other individual state-of-the-art PCB defect detection model in F1-score, and the area under curve value of DDML is also higher than that of any other individual detection model. Furthermore, compared with DDMV, the DDML with an automatic machine learning method achieves the best performance in PCB defect detection, and the F1-score on the two datasets can reach 99.7% and 95.6% respectively.
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    Cross-Modal Entity Resolution for Image and Text Integrating Global and Fine-Grained Joint Attention Mechanism
    ZENG Zhirian(曾志贤),CAO Jianjun*(曹建军),WENG Nianfeng(翁年凤),YUAN Zhen(袁震),YU Xu(余旭)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (6): 728-737.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2465-y
    Abstract72)      PDF(pc) (1951KB)(38)       Save
    In order to solve the problem that the existing cross-modal entity resolution methods easily ignore the high-level semantic informational correlations between cross-modal data, we propose a novel cross-modal entity resolution for image and text integrating global and fine-grained joint attention mechanism method. First, we map the cross-modal data to a common embedding space utilizing a feature extraction network. Then, we integrate global joint attention mechanism and fine-grained joint attention mechanism, making the model have the ability to learn the global semantic characteristics and the local fine-grained semantic characteristics of the cross-modal data, which is used to fully exploit the cross-modal semantic correlation and boost the performance of cross-modal entity resolution. Moreover, experiments on Flickr-30K and MS-COCO datasets show that the overall performance of R@sum outperforms by 4.30% and 4.54% compared with 5 state-of-the-art methods, respectively, which can fully demonstrate the superiority of our proposed method.
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    A Novel Cable-Driven Soft Robot for Surgery
    LI Ru1 (李茹), CHEN Fang2 (陈方), YU Wenwei3 (俞文伟), IGARASH Tatsuo3,4, SHU Xiongpeng1 (舒雄鹏), XIE Le1,5,6∗ (谢叻)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (1): 60-72.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2497-3
    Abstract71)      PDF(pc) (2939KB)(34)       Save
    Robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) is widely used to treat prostate cancer. The rigid instruments primarily used in RARP cannot overcome the problem of blind areas in surgery and lead to more trauma such as more incision for the passage of the instrument and additional tissue damage caused by rigid instruments. Soft robots are relatively flexible and theoretically have infinite degrees of freedom which can overcome the problem of the rigid instrument. A soft robot system for single-port transvesical robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (STvRARP) is developed in this study. The soft manipulator with 10 mm in diameter and a maximum bending angle of 270? has good flexibility and dexterity. The design and mechanical structure of the soft robot are described. The kinematics of the soft manipulator is established and the inverse kinematics is compensated based on the characteristics of the designed soft manipulator. The master-slave control system of soft robot for surgery is built and the feasibility of the designed soft robot is verified.
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    Measuring Transverse Relaxation Time of Xenon Atoms Based on Single Beam of Laser in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Gyroscope
    ZHONG Guochen1(钟国宸),LIU Hual*(刘华), GUo Yang1(郭阳),LI Shaoliang2(李绍良),ZHAO Wanliang2(赵万良),CHENG Yuxiang2(成宇翔)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (5): 569-576.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2436-3
    Abstract70)      PDF(pc) (1758KB)(33)       Save
    Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscope (NMRG) has the characteristics of high precision and miniaturization, and is one of the main applications of quantum technology in the field of navigation. The transverse relaxation time (T2) of the xenon nuclear spin in the atomic cell of the NMRG directly affects the angular random walk of the gyro. Accurate and rapid measurement of T2 is conducive to further improvement of gyroscope. At present, for the measurement of T2, the schemes of two orthogonal lasers for pumping and detecting are usually used. By applying two fast-switching orthogonal static magnetic fields and a single beam of circularly polarized laser with corresponding wavelength to pump the atomic cell, the xenon nuclear macroscopic magnetic moment Larmor precession is generated. The cesium atoms parametric magnetometer in cell is formed to detect the free induction decay signal generated by nuclear spin precession of xenon atoms. The measurement of T2 by a single laser simplifies the measurement equipment compared with traditional method with two lasers. The experimental results show that the T2 of xenon atoms is more than 10 s, and the effects of temperature are studied, which lay the foundation for the subsequent improvement of gyro performance.
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    Formal Analysis of SA-TEK 3-Way Handshake Protocols
    XU Sen* (徐森),YANG Shuo (杨硕),ZHANG Kefei (张克非)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (6): 753-762.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-021-2340-2
    Abstract67)      PDF(pc) (1977KB)(20)       Save
    IEEE 802.16 is the standard for broadband wireless access. The security sublayer is provided within IEEE 802.16 MAC layer for privacy and access control, in which the privacy and key management (PKM) protocols are specified. In IEEE 802.16e, SA-TEK 3-way handshake is added into PKM protocols, aiming to facilitate reauthentication and key distribution. This paper analyzes the SA-TEK 3-way handshake protocol, and proposes an optimized version. We also use CasperFDR, a popular formal analysis tool, to verify our analysis. Moreover, we model various simplified versions to find the functions of those elements in the protocol, and correct some misunderstandings in related works using other formal analysis tools.
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    Medicine-Engineering Interdisciplinary Research Based on Bibliometric Analysis: A Case Study on Medicine-Engineering Institutional Cooperation of Shanghai Jiao Tong University
    WANG Qingwen (王庆稳),CUI Tingting (崔婷婷),DENG Peiwen* (邓珮雯)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (6): 841-856.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2418-5
    Abstract66)      PDF(pc) (1829KB)(135)       Save
    This article aims to provide reference for medicine-engineering interdisciplinary research. Targeted at the scientific literature and patent literature published by Shanghai Jiao Tong University, this article attempts to set up co-occurrence matrix of medicine-engineering institutional information which was extracted from address fields of the papers, so as to construct the medicine-engineering intersection datasets. The dataset of scientific literature was analyzed using bibliometrics and visualization methods from multiple dimensions, and the most active factors, such as trends of output, journal and subject distribution, were identified from the indicators of category normalized citation impact (CNCI), times cited, keywords, citation topics and the degree of medicineengineering interdisplinary. Research on hotspots and trends was discussed in detail. Analyses of the dataset of patent literature showed research themes and measured the degree for technology convergence of medicineengineering.
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    Prediction of Pediatric Sepsis Using a Deep Encoding Network with Cross Features
    CHEN Xiao1,2 (陈潇), ZHANG Rui1,2 (张瑞), TANG Xinyi1,2 (汤心溢), QIAN Juan3∗ (钱娟)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (1): 131-140.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2499-1
    Abstract66)      PDF(pc) (1153KB)(19)       Save
    Sepsis poses a serious threat to health of children in pediatric intensive care unit. The mortality from pediatric sepsis can be effectively reduced through in-time diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The bacilliculture detection method is too time-consuming to receive timely treatment. In this research, we propose a new framework: a deep encoding network with cross features (CF-DEN) that enables accurate early detection of sepsis. Cross features are automatically constructed via the gradient boosting decision tree and distilled into the deep encoding network (DEN) we designed. The DEN is aimed at learning sufficiently effective representation from clinical test data. Each layer of the DEN filtrates the features involved in computation at current layer via attention mechanism and outputs the current prediction which is additive layer by layer to obtain the embedding feature at last layer. The framework takes the advantage of tree-based method and neural network method to extract effective representation from small clinical dataset and obtain accurate prediction in order to prompt patient to get timely treatment. We evaluate the performance of the framework on the dataset collected from Shanghai Children’s Medical Center. Compared with common machine learning methods, our method achieves the increase on F1-score by 16.06% on the test set.
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    Social Network Analysis of COVID-19 Research and the Changing International Collaboration Structure
    QIN Ye1 (秦野), CHEN Rongrong2∗ (陈蓉蓉)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (1): 150-160.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2558-7
    Abstract64)      PDF(pc) (3127KB)(17)       Save
    Research in Information Science and interdisciplinary areas suggested the formation of a growing network of international research collaboration. The massive transmission of COVID-19 worldwide especially after the identification of the Omicron variant could fundamentally alter the factors shaping the network’s development. This study employs network analysis methods to analyze the structure of the COVID-19 research collaboration from 2020 to 2022, using two major academic publication databases and the VOSviewer software. A novel temporal view is added by examining the dynamic changes of the network, and a fractional counting method is adopted as methodological improvements to previous research. Analysis reveals that the COVID-19 research network structure has undergone substantial changes over time, as collaborating countries and regions form and re-form new clusters. Transformations in the network can be partly explained by key developments in the pandemic and other social-political events. China as one of the largest pivots in the network formed a relatively distinct cluster, with potential to develop a larger Asia-Pacific collaboration cluster based on its research impact.
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    Spectrum-Sensing Method for Arc Fault Detection in Direct Current System with Lithium Batteries
    HAN Zhengqian1(韩正谦),LUO Liwenl*(罗利文),YAo Wei2(姚伟),YIN Shaowen2(尹邵文),CHEN Wei2(陈伟),WANG Yinghui2(王营辉)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (5): 630-637.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2482-x
    Abstract64)      PDF(pc) (1296KB)(34)       Save
    We mainly study the detection of arc faults in the direct current (DC) system of lithium battery energy storage power station. Lithium battery DC systems are widely used, but traditional DC protection devices are unable to achieve adequate protection of equipment and circuits. We build an experimental platform based on an energy storage power station with lithium batteries. Then, the data collection of normal current and arc-fault current is completed under multiple conditions, and the waveforms of obvious and weak signals as the arc occurs are presented. We analyze the principles and application range of several common spectrum-sensing methods and study the feasibility of applying them to the arc detection field. Finally, the covariance absolute value detection algorithm is selected, and the average value of the current is filtered out to make the algorithm adapt to the arc detection field. The result shows that the detection probability in 500 sets of experimental data has reached 98%
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    Ensemble of Two-Path Capsule Networks for Diagnosis of Turner Syndrome Using Global-Local Facial Images
    LIU Lu (刘璐)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2023, 28 (4): 459-.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2491-9
    Abstract64)      PDF(pc) (545KB)(32)       Save
    Turner syndrome (TS) is a chromosomal disorder disease that only affects the growth of female patients. Prompt diagnosis is of high significance for the patients. However, clinical screening methods are time-consuming and cost-expensive. Some researchers used machine learning-based methods to detect TS, the performance of which needed to be improved. Therefore, we propose an ensemble method of two-path capsule networks (CapsNets) for detecting TS based on global-local facial images. Specifically, the TS facial images are preprocessed and segmented into eight local parts under the direction of physicians; then, nine two-path CapsNets are respectively trained using the complete TS facial images and eight local images, in which the few-shot learning is utilized to solve the problem of limited data; finally, a probability-based ensemble method is exploited to combine nine classifiers for the classification of TS. By studying base classifiers, we find two meaningful facial areas are more related to TS patients, i.e., the parts of eyes and nose. The results demonstrate that the proposed model is effective for the TS classification task, which achieves the highest accuracy of 0.924 1.
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    Working Fluid Distribution and Charge Regulation Control in Organic Rankine Cycle
    YE Zhenhong(叶振鸿), WANG Wei(王炜), LI Xinhua(李新华), CHEN Jiangping(陈江平)
    J Shanghai Jiaotong Univ Sci    2024, 29 (2): 188-201.   DOI: 10.1007/s12204-022-2538-y
    Abstract63)      PDF(pc) (1116KB)(28)       Save
    Charge-based studies, in particular investigations of mass distribution, are still almost absent, although the efficiency of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) has attracted a great deal of scholarly attention. This paper aims to provide a new perspective on the intrinsic relationship among the mass distribution, phase-zone distribution in the heat exchanger (HEX), charge of working fluid (WF), rotation speed of the pump (RSP), and system performance. A comprehensive ORC simulation model is presented by linking each component’s sub-models, including the independent models for HEX, pump, and expander in an object-oriented fashion. The visualization study of mass distribution of the WF in the system is investigated under different working conditions. Furthermore, the volume and mass of the gas phase, two-phase and liquid phase of WF in the HEX and their variation rules are analyzed in-depth. Finally, the strategies of charge reduction considering HEX areas and pipe sizes are investigated. The results show that the model based on the interior-point method provides high levels of accuracy and robustness. The mass ratio of the WF is concentrated in the liquid receiver, especially in the regenerator, which is 32.9% and 21.9% of the total mass, respectively. Furthermore, 2.4 kg (6.9%) WF in the system gradually migrates to the hightemperature side as the RSP increases while 6.1 kg (17.4%) WF migrates to the low-temperature side, especially to the condenser, as the charge in the system increases. Output power and efficiency both decrease gradually after the peak due to changes in RSP and charge. Last, reducing heat transfer areas of the condenser and regenerator is the most effective way to reduce WF charge.
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