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Table of Content

    28 March 2021, Volume 55 Issue Sup.1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Artificial Intelligence
    Can AI Be Realized by Manipulating Waves?
    HE Qingbo,JIANG Tianxi
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  1-2.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.018
    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (1152KB) ( 407 )   Save
    This paper briefly describes the research background of wave physics-based artificial intelligence (AI) metamaterials. The core idea of AI metamaterials is “learned sensing”. The key point of realizing AI metamaterials is how to build dynamics model of metamaterials, and analyze its association with AI model. The wave-manipulation-based AI metamaterials will open up a new way to breaking through the traditional technical problems of information perception and processing, and therefore, have broad application prospects.
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    Do Agent Self-Game and Learning Have Limitation of Performance?
    LI Shaoyuan, YIN Xiang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  3-4.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.019
    Abstract ( 578 )   PDF (382KB) ( 261 )   Save
    Self-game is one of the most fundamental ways for intelligence emergence. A basic idea of the agent self-game and learning was introduced, and the latest research progress in this direction was expounded. In addition, a key question that whether agent self-game and learning have limitation was proposed. However, it is pointed out that cybernetic and the information theory should be combined to investigate the emergence of intelligence from information and computation perspectives.
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    How to Achieve Human-Machine Cooperation in Cyber-Physical Systems
    LI Shaoyuan, YIN Xiang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  5-6.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.020
    Abstract ( 867 )   PDF (389KB) ( 296 )   Save
    The architecture of cyber-physical system (CPS) plays a fundamental role in the future world. The basic architecture of human-in-the-loop CPS was introduced. A key problem of how to achieve cooperation in human-machine CPS was proposed. However, it is necessary to integrate multi-disciplinary methods such as information, computing, and control to achieve collaboration from the perspective of the system theory.
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    Life Sciences
    What Is the Role Played by Hydrogen in Life?
    CHENG Weizheng,DENG Tao,DING Wenjiang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  7-9.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.021
    Abstract ( 885 )   PDF (570KB) ( 505 )   Save
    As the earliest element in the universe and the most abundant one in living organisms, hydrogen shows a wide range of positive impact on biological systems, including physiology regulation, selective anti-oxidation, etc. At present, hydrogen has gradually found applications in medical science and agriculture, which leads to the establishment of “hydrogen biology”. Exploring the mechanism of how hydrogen operates in living organisms and accurately understanding its role in life will provide an alternative and promising approach to overcoming many critical challenges faced by the living systems.
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    What Is the Process of Entropy Change in the Origin of Life?
    WANG Jiayao,LIU Chenguang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  10-11.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.022
    Abstract ( 875 )   PDF (253KB) ( 391 )   Save
    The evolution of universe is a process of entropy increase which forces life to start. However, life brings some parts of nature into order as an entropy-decrease process. Why can the entropy-increase universe create entropy-decrease life? How does the entropy change in the origin of life?
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    How Is Neural Information Encoded and Processed in the Brain?
    LIANG Peiji
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  12-13.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.023
    Abstract ( 640 )   PDF (399KB) ( 344 )   Save
    The brain performs its function by integrating information and making behavioral decisions accordingly. The understanding of brain function is an important task of neuroscience research, and also provides insights into artificial intelligence. But how information is encoded in the brain, how it is represented, and how it is read out by downstream processes are still unknown.
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    What Is Functioning Machinery of SingleCell Organism?
    DING Xianting
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  14-15.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.024
    Abstract ( 703 )   PDF (444KB) ( 200 )   Save
    Many single-cell organisms function with extraordinary efficiency and accuracy. For example, a macrophage can track a bacterial dynamically in real time, which indicates that such single-cell organism has extraordinary advanced sensors and actuators. It remains unknown for human beings how such delicate single-cell organisms operate. Understanding this fundamental scientific hurdle is of great value to many fields, such as bio-mimic robotics, control theory, protein networking, drug development, cell aging, etc.
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    How to Get a Large Number of Hematopoietic Stem Cells?
    DONG Liaoliao,CHENG Lin
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  16-17.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.025
    Abstract ( 600 )   PDF (587KB) ( 221 )   Save
    This paper briefly introduces the basic research and clinical application value of hematopoietic stem cells and points out that acquiring a large number of hematopoietic stem cells is an important scientific problem to be solved urgently. Expansion and induction of hematopoietic stem cells is a promising research direction, which faces multiple opportunities and challenges.
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    What Is Biological Mechanism of Aging?
    LIU Feng,YIN Shankai
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  18-19.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.026
    Abstract ( 743 )   PDF (1013KB) ( 275 )   Save
    This paper introduces the scientific significance of aging research, and summarizes the biological mechanisms behind aging in previous studies. Besides, it raises several key questions that need to be answered urgently in this area, and indicates that the emerging multiomics research method is an important development direction to explore the biological mechanism.
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    Is Aging a Disease?
    WEN Dongsheng,LI Qingfeng
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  20-21.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.027
    Abstract ( 650 )   PDF (808KB) ( 220 )   Save
    Aging is an unavoidable and natural phenomenon faced by everyone in the life span. This paper reviewed and summarized the advances made in the reorganization of aging in the past decades from the perspective of medical science and human dimensions, illustrating whether aging should be treated as a disease, and forecasting the prospect of aging in future research.
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    Does High Pressure Promote a Rapid Life Evolution from Anaerobic to Aerobic?
    ZHANG Yu,XIAO Xiang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  22-23.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.028
    Abstract ( 588 )   PDF (871KB) ( 303 )   Save
    This paper briefly describes the driving effect of high pressure on biological evolution, and raises a question, i.e., does high pressure promote a rapid and unique life evolution from anaerobic to aerobic? A better understanding about the evolution of life on Earth, and the novel thoughts of deep-sea resource mining and extraterritorial life exploration would be achieved by answering this question.
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    How Does the Nervous System Remember Immune Signals?
    WU Yue,WANG Honglin
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  24-25.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.029
    Abstract ( 694 )   PDF (591KB) ( 221 )   Save
    There is a sophisticated and complex interaction network between the nervous system and the immune system. It is of significant research and translational value to clarify the mechanism of the nervous system in memorizing and influencing inflammatory signals. This paper describes how the immune system and the nervous system regulate inflammatory diseases, and points out that the nervous system affects immunological memory. Besides, it introduces the neural-immune interaction network, in the hope of providing new research ideas for the treatment of immune inflammatory diseases.
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    How Plants Sense Environmental Temperature Changes?
    LIANG Wanqi
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  26-27.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.030
    Abstract ( 1122 )   PDF (310KB) ( 367 )   Save
    Temperature is one of the most important environmental cues regulating plant growth and development. This paper highlights recent achievements in understanding temperature-sensing in plants. Of particular, recent studies identified several novel thermosensors in plants, which shed lights on the fundamental mechanisms underlying how plants sense and adapt to a variable temperature environment.
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    Can Taste Mechanism Be Analyzed and All Tastes Quantified?
    YAO Jiwen,LIU Chenguang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  28-29.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.031
    Abstract ( 685 )   PDF (275KB) ( 367 )   Save
    It is difficult to describe and accurately quantify the taste of food. The analysis of taste mechanism can help establish a comprehensive and multi-dimensional standard for tasting and quantifing it. The development of an instrument for accurate analysis of taste can avoid various disadvantages brought by artificial seasoning, such as high cost, low efficiency, and large deviation. Besides, the standard flavor material can be applied to more accurately copy the taste.
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    Why Do People Age: Aging Mechanism of Organism
    LIU Ze,YANG Guoyuan
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  30-31.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.032
    Abstract ( 986 )   PDF (343KB) ( 351 )   Save
    Aging is an unavoidable problem that has puzzled scientists for years. The programming theory and the damage or error theory are representatives of the modern mainstream biological theories on human aging. With the continuous improvement of medicine, a variety of novel aging theories such as the microcirculation theory and the telomerase theory have emerged, which enrich the research perspectives in this field. But the existing theories are still not good enough to explain the process of aging. Many theories are related to each other in a complex way. The research and test of various aging theories can promote the understanding of the aging mechanism and benefit human beings.
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    Can Regulation of Epigenetics Be Controlled Artificially?
    ZHANG Xue,LIU Chenguang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  32-33.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.033
    Abstract ( 473 )   PDF (278KB) ( 471 )   Save
    Epigenetics is the study of heritable phenotype changes that do not involve alterations in the DNA sequence. It has been used in the evolution theory and disease therapy. Can it be selectively inherited by manipulation? Humans may be able to benefit from new technologies and avoid some harmful epigenetic events.
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    Can Biomaterials Be Used to Combat Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria?
    TANG Tingting
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  34-35.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.034
    Abstract ( 489 )   PDF (654KB) ( 262 )   Save
    The antibiotic resistance of bacteria poses a major challenge to global public health. The antibacterial biomaterials were proposed to substitute or reduce the use of antibiotics, thus preventing implant related infections and limiting the propagation of antibiotic resistance. One research strategy is the surface modification of implant to enhance the implant function with self-cleaning, immune-regulating, contact killing, and release killing abilities. The other strategy is the topical delivery of antimicrobials, aiming to realize the sustainable and controllable drug release profile with microenvironment response and cellular targeting.
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    TALE Targets for Durable Broad-Spectrum Resistance Breeding in Crops
    XU Xiameng, XU Zhengyin, LI Ying, YAN Yichao, ZOU Lifang, CHEN Gongyou
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  36-38.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.035
    Abstract ( 698 )   PDF (809KB) ( 204 )   Save
    To reveal the genetic basis of the interaction between Xanthomonas pathogens and their host plants for breeding durable broad-spectrum resistance crops, the recent important progress in these fields are summarized. The devastation of plant diseases caused by Xanthomonas species is determined by Xanthomonas T3SS effectors, mainly transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs), which target effector-binding element (EBE) sites of either crop resistance (R) or susceptibility (S) genes. Then, the five types of TALE-targets in plants are briefly stated and the importance of plant general transcription factors TFIIA in the activation of NLR-type R genes in plant resistance is stressed. Finally, that gene-editing of EBEs of R or S genes is proposed to be the new strategy for resistance breeding to control crop diseases in the future.
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    Medical Science
    What Is the Smallest Unit That Can Communicate with Outside?
    CAO Lianying,LIU Chenguang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  39-40.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.036
    Abstract ( 547 )   PDF (249KB) ( 486 )   Save
    Information exchange between lives exists everywhere. People communicate with each other through words, language, and postures. Bacteria communicate through small organic molecules (quorum sensing). What is the smallest unit that can communicate with the outside world? Do viruses also have the ability to communicate with each other?
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    Production and Glycan Evolution of Therapeutic Glycoproteins
    ZHANG Han,ZHANG Yan
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  41-43.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.037
    Abstract ( 692 )   PDF (619KB) ( 309 )   Save
    Therapeutic glycoproteins show the advantages of specificity, outstanding curative effect, and good safety in many diseases. Glycosylation is an important factor affecting molecular stability, immunogenicity, and pharmacokinetic profiles. By means of glycoengineering strategies, researches on the evolution of glycan on therapeutic glycoproteins have deepened. This paper briefly describes the production and modification of recombinant glycoproteins in vivo or vitro, and indicates that the production of homogeneous glycoprotein is the prerequisite for studying the effect of glycan on therapeutic glycoprotein properties.
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    Novel Technologies of Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Based on Terminal Glycans
    DENG Yao,LIU Qiannan,ZOU Xia,ZHANG Yan
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  44-45.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.038
    Abstract ( 590 )   PDF (523KB) ( 221 )   Save
    The core of personalized precision medicine is to conduct personalized characterization of complex biological samples. Glycans exist in large quantities on the surface of proteins in human tissues, cells, and various body fluids, which have important biological functions. The heterogeneity of glycans contains important characterization information and provides targets for early diagnosis and treatment of diseases. This paper introduces novel technologies of disease diagnosis and treatment based on terminal glycans, and illustrates that heterogeneous glycans can be used as novel targets for disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. The achievements can provide reference for the realization of clinical personalized medicine.
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    Biological 3D Printing and Organ Reconstruction
    WANG Jinwu,LI Tao,XU Yuanjing,LI Shuai,REN Ya,DAI Kerong
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  46-48.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.039
    Abstract ( 826 )   PDF (975KB) ( 424 )   Save
    To further illustrate the application value of the biological 3D printing technology in organ reconstruction, this paper introduces the current status and progress of this technology in organ reconstruction. Besides, it proposes that the future biological 3D printing technology should seek more breakthroughs in bio-ink, printing technology, etc., to realize the clinical application of the in vitro organ reconstruction.
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    Could Cancer Patients Survive for a Long Time?
    WANG Siying,ZHENG Xingling,QIN Wenxin
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  49-50.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.040
    Abstract ( 778 )   PDF (477KB) ( 203 )   Save
    To explore the possibility of long-term survival of cancer patients, this paper describes a phenomenon based on the current status of cancer research in the United States. This phenomenon is that the 5-year survival rate of all cancers combined has been effectively improved since the 1970s with the development of various methods of prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. This implies that cancer is no longer a highly-lethal disease due to the progress of cancer research and medical technologies in the future. It may be possible that cancer patients could survive for a long time.
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    How Cell Plasticity Drives Regeneration and Tumorigenesis?
    YAN Hexin
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  51-52.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.041
    Abstract ( 512 )   PDF (338KB) ( 281 )   Save
    Organism is characterized by a remarkable plasticity, which drives efficient regeneration and restoration of homeostasis after damage. When aberrantly activated, this plasticity contributes to tumor initiation and progression. Both regenerative and tumorigenic processes rely on the coordinated integration at the tissue level of multiple forms of cellular plasticity. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the various forms of cell plasticity may deliver novel strategies for developing regenerative therapies, cancer prevention, and antitumor treatments.
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    Can Immunotherapy Cure Cancer?
    ZONG Chunyan,SHEN Jianfeng
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  53-54.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.042
    Abstract ( 724 )   PDF (379KB) ( 226 )   Save
    With the rapid development of therapeutics such as immune checkpoint blockade, tumor vaccines, and adoptive cellular immunotherapy, cancer immunotherapy has demonstrated significant advantages over traditional treatment methods. This paper briefly introduces the challenges in the current cancer immunotherapy, and discusses herein whether immunotherapy could lead to the paradigm shift of cancer therapy or even cure cancer.
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    Could Precision Therapy Cure Tumor?
    ZHANG Sujiang,CHEN Saijuan
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  55-57.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.043
    Abstract ( 634 )   PDF (1037KB) ( 155 )   Save
    Precision therapy, represented by cancer targeted drugs, is bringing revolutionary breakthroughs to treatment. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), formerly defined as a highly lethal hematological malignancy, can now be mostly cured by precision diagnosis and treatment based on clarification of molecular pathogenesis. Recently, prospective multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial, precise scoring system, PML-RARa directed target atlas regulated by synergistic treatment can further help us overcome the remaining obstacles of high risk APL cure. This concept could extend to other types of leukemia or solid tumors.
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    Amyloid Hypothesis or Tau Hypothesis, Which Is Right?
    MA Buyong
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  58-59.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.044
    Abstract ( 1293 )   PDF (416KB) ( 477 )   Save
    This paper introduces amyloidosis, prion, and Aβ/tau proteins in Alzheimer’s disease. It points out that the amyloid hypothesis and the tau hypothesis are two sides of a coin, which reflect the specialty of Alzheimer’s disease among common features of amyloidosis. The elucidations of oligomer structures in Aβ peptide and tau protein have significances in understanding amyloidosis and fighting against Alzheimer’s disease or general amyloidosis.
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    How to Build the Vascular Network for Organ Regeneration?
    ZHANG Wenjie
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  60-61.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.045
    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (390KB) ( 268 )   Save
    Development in the stem cells and tissue engineering technology provides novel ideas both for large tissue defect treatment and organ replacement. However, the vascular network in human organs is delicate and complex, which is hard to be manufactured and has become the main bottleneck in organ regeneration and transplantation. In addition, the inability to form a vascular system also restricts the size of organoids cultured in vitro from breaking through. Therefore, an idea of building synchronized functional vascular network was proposed to lay a good foundation for maintaining stem cell survival and developing organ regeneration.
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    Challenges and Opportunities in BrainTargeted Delivery
    WANG Bin,ZHANG Xueqing
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  62-64.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.046
    Abstract ( 716 )   PDF (3595KB) ( 319 )   Save
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain against exogenous harmful compounds, but it also impedes the delivery of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to the brain, thereby hindering progress of new drug development for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. There are natural substances that can traverse the BBB emerged in organisms. A comprehensive study on their biological interactions with BBB will provide critical insights into the design and development of bioinspired brain-targeted delivery systems. In this paper, a series of brain delivery strategies were discussed with an emphasis on the bioinspired nano-delivery system which has great potential for clinical applications. The research findings could be applied to facilitate the clinical translation of brain-targeted diagnosis and treatment products.
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    Oceanography
    Why Does a Wide Range of White Foam Appear Around Moving Ships?
    ZHANG Xiaosong,WAN Decheng
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  65-66.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.017
    Abstract ( 678 )   PDF (599KB) ( 244 )   Save
    A wide range of white foam flow naturally appears around the ships sailing on the sea. This phenomenon involves multiphase flow components spanning very large scales, including water, air, bubbles, and atomized droplets. Moreover, it is closely associated with complex turbulence. In order to improve the understanding of ship foam flow, the formation reason, evolution mechanism, and the effect on the structures were expounded. This research will provide reference for solving the important issue in the exploration and utilization of marine environment in the future.
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    Environmental Science
    Which Elements in Food Are Affecting Human Health?
    LIU Chunjiang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  67-68.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.006
    Abstract ( 477 )   PDF (312KB) ( 156 )   Save
    Based on the food chain theory, the relationship between global change, plant/food stoichiometric composition and human health was proposed. The significance of agricultural, food, and health technology was presented.
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    How Would Cloud Dynamics and Radiative Effects Influence Future Global Warming?
    FENG Jing,MA Jian
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  69-71.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.007
    Abstract ( 487 )   PDF (7387KB) ( 140 )   Save
    This paper summarizes the importance of cloud radiative feedback to climate change and analyzes its spatial distribution using CMIP6 output. A comparison of the sea surface warming patterns indicates that they are closely related, with low cloud contributing the most to the net feedback. However, the underlying dynamics is still mysterious and the so-induced uncertainty needs urgent attribution.
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    How Will the Weather Change Along with Global Warming?
    HUANG Chaoming,LIU Hailong
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  72-73.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.008
    Abstract ( 745 )   PDF (640KB) ( 231 )   Save
    This paper introduces the large-scale shifts in weather patterns influenced by global warming. Then, it elaborates on the fact that the extreme weather events caused by global warming will become more intense and frequent. It points out that the characters of these extreme events such as heat waves and extreme cold events, floods and droughts are asymmetric, and show regional patterns. Therefore, the relevant mechanism research can help humans adapt to environmental changes and improve their ability to predict, prevent, and reduce disasters.
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    Can Humans Control Climate?
    LIU Hailong
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  74-75.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.009
    Abstract ( 810 )   PDF (595KB) ( 235 )   Save
    This paper introduces the reaction of human intervention in climate change to global warming, which is defined as geoengineering. Then, it proposes that in a broader sense, mankind in the future may be able to manipulate climate based on the operation mechanism of the climate system of the earth. However, the overall impact and side effects of climate control on the climate system of the earth remain uncertain and controversial.
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    What Is the Response of Biomass and Biodiversity to Ocean Deoxygenation due to Climate Change?
    GONG Hongjing,ZHOU Yuntao
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  76-78.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.010
    Abstract ( 781 )   PDF (731KB) ( 288 )   Save
    Global climate change has led to a large amount of oxygen loss in regional and global ocean. Deoxygenation can result in biological migration and death by affecting morphology, metabolism, adaptability, etc. In addition, deoxygenation can also damage the stability of ecosystem by changing community quantity, composition, and distribution. Understanding the response of regional and global biomass and biodiversity to ocean deoxygenation can provide a theoretical basis for a sustainable management of marine ecosystem.
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    Future City: How Can Urban Problems Be Solved by Nature System?
    WANG Zhaolong,LIU Lijiao
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  79-81.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.011
    Abstract ( 568 )   PDF (2727KB) ( 282 )   Save
    Urbanization is an inevitable trend of global development. However, it has caused many problems such as the heat island effect, urban flooding, and environmental pollutions. Therefore, a sustainable urban development model was proposed, that is, the future city will coordinate the harmonious coexistence of humans and nature, retain stormwater, reduce urban energy consumption, and recycle urban organic wastes by adopting green infrastructures. The scientific problems that need to be solved were proposed to achieve the natural future city.
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    What Impact Will De-Globalization Impose on Earth’s Ecosystem and Economic Development?
    GENG Yong
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  82-83.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.012
    Abstract ( 1477 )   PDF (376KB) ( 304 )   Save
    De-globalization has resulted in serious impacts on economic and environment, and influenced effective cooperation among different countries. It is therefore crucial to evaluate the corresponding impacts so that key determinants can be identified and feasible policies can be made to address this issue.
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    Energy Sciences
    Is Static Electricity a Friend or Foe? Triboelectric Effect for Ambient Energy Harvesting
    CHO Yuljae
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  84-85.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.013
    Abstract ( 659 )   PDF (353KB) ( 238 )   Save
    You might remember that you hesitated to grab a knob in fear of the static electricity. Although static electricity was observed by Thales in B.C.600, its mechanisms had been elusive for several thousand years. In recently years, this seemingly impregnable mystery has been partially unraveled by several researches showing that static electricity is caused by the deformation of protrusion on materials at the nanoscale. This one step forward in understanding electrostatics will bring vast opportunities in a number of applications. Now we human beings hold the key to turning electrostatics from a foe into friend.
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    What Will Be the Cheapest Energy on the Earth?
    SHEN Wenzhong
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  86-87.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.014
    Abstract ( 841 )   PDF (352KB) ( 228 )   Save
    School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
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    Sustainable Agriculture and Desert Bloom via Atmospheric Water Harvesting
    WANG Chenxi,ZOU Hao,WANG Ruzhu
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  88-90.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.015
    Abstract ( 859 )   PDF (2630KB) ( 377 )   Save
    The contradiction between supply and demand of agricultural irrigation water is becoming increasingly prominent under the influence of population growth, cultivated land reduction, climate change and so on. Especially in the desert areas, the sustainable development requires effective access to water resources and the realization of water-saving and energy-saving planting. The technology of adsorption-based atmospheric water harvesting can get rid of the limitation of geographical location and capture considerable fresh water resources from the air, providing sustainable irrigation water for agriculture development. In the application scenario of greenhouses, the water harvesting device can adsorb the vapor from the moist air, regulate indoor humidity, and release adsorption heat. The water collected in the desorption process could be recycled for greenhouse irrigation. Furthermore, the technology would be potentially applied in urban farming and desert bloom.
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    How to Develop Large-Scale Energy Storage Technologies Comparable to Fossil Fuels?
    ZHAO Changying, YAN Jun, ZHAO Yao
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  91-92.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.016
    Abstract ( 596 )   PDF (361KB) ( 302 )   Save
    The necessity for energy storage technologies was analyzed in order to develop feasible large-scale energy storage technologies in the future. Besides, the advantages and disadvantages of various energy storage technologies, including mechanical energy storage, electricity storage, and thermal energy storage, were reviewed. Moreover, the characteristics of large-scale energy storage technologies comparable to fossil fuels were summarized. The analysis shows that Carnot battery (also known as pumped-thermal energy storage) and thermochemical heat storage are the most promising technologies to achieve large-scale energy storage at present.
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    Engineering and Materials Science
    Demand-Driven Materials Design
    ZHANG Hengrui
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  93-94.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.001
    Abstract ( 731 )   PDF (323KB) ( 366 )   Save
    Emerging paradigms provide a promising solution to current challenges faced by materials science and engineering. In this paper, the progress in materials genome engineering is reviewed, and its facilitation of the materials design is disscussed. Based on the computational and data-driven methodologies, materials could be integrated into the engineering design cycle to realize demand-driven materials design, so as to accelerate the discovery and application of materials.
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    How Does Deformation of Solid Material Induce Refrigeration?
    XIAO Fei,JIN Xuejun
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  95-96.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.002
    Abstract ( 695 )   PDF (383KB) ( 274 )   Save
    The solid-elastocaloric refrigeration effect, characterized by high energy efficiency, large temperature change, and no refrigerant needed, is the preferred candidate of the non gas-liquid compression refrigeration technology, which takes advantage of the alternate absorption and the release of latent heat of solid-solid phase transformation to realize refrigeration. This paper describes the mechanism and test methods of the elastocaloric effect, and summarizes the research progress and problems in the Ti-Ni-based, Cu-based, Fe-based, and Heusler-type shape memory alloy as elastocaloric material. Moreover, it anticipates the research directions of the elastocaloric refrigeration materials based on the shape memory alloy, so as to enhance the application of the solid-elastocaloric refrigeration technology.
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    Opportunities and Challenges of 3D Printing Technology in Future Food Processing Industry·
    WU Jinhong,SHI Yi,CHEN Tingzhu,WANG Zhengwu
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  97-99.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.003
    Abstract ( 978 )   PDF (2444KB) ( 493 )   Save
    To further illustrate the application of the 3D printing technology in food industry, the prospect of the 3D printing technology in food processing industry was briefed. Specially, the application includes the development of novel food materials, the precise design and regulation of special nutritional requirements, the structural modeling of creative products with the special expression of cultural elements, and the artificial intelligence manufacturing of food. Furthermore, the outstanding technical bottlenecks and challenges of the 3D food printing technology were described, especially in the basic theoretical research of food materials used in printing, the development of printing equipment, and the development of artificial intelligence client software platform. This review aims to provide a theoretical guidance for the application and development of the 3D printing technology in future food processing industry.
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    Chemical Science
    How Powerful Is a Single Molecule When It Is Actuated?
    FENG Yan,LI Tao
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  100-101.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.004
    Abstract ( 599 )   PDF (437KB) ( 208 )   Save
    Some specially designed molecules, such as molecular switches and molecular motors, can reversibly change their geometrical shape when receiving energy from the outside. Such molecular movement enables the active molecule to act as a mechanical actuator. Once orderly assembled in large numbers, these molecules can provide a big driving force, leading to macroscopic actuation behaviors. However, the power of a single molecule remains unknown. The answer to this fundamental question could lead to a deeper understanding of molecular properties and more precise molecular-scale actuators for applications.
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    Can Active Transport on Cell Membrane Be Imitated for Desalination?
    LI Lingyun
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  102-103.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.005
    Abstract ( 692 )   PDF (428KB) ( 299 )   Save
    This paper briefly reviews the development of seawater desalination and artificial cells, and points out their importance. Considering the characteristics of biological membrane, such as green, high efficiency, and reusability, the idea of imitating biological cell membrane for seawater desalination is proposed.
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    Physics and Mathematics
    Quantification of Spatial Structures of Complex Systems
    WANG Lipo
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  104-105.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.047
    Abstract ( 547 )   PDF (3252KB) ( 235 )   Save
    There are various complex systems in nature, for instance turbulence and organism. In the present stage, the lack of effective methodologies and ideas hinders the further understanding of these challenging problems, e.g., the multi-scale and nonlinear behaviors of complex systems. As a promising direction to develop novel analyses approaches, the structure characterization can be regarded as a reasonable extension of the classical geometry analysis from simple to complex systems. In this paper, the general goals and ideas of the approaches to be developed were expounded. Moreover, based on the achieved results, some tentative guidelines and prerequisites were suggested for structure characterization.
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    How Does the Concept of Topological Defect Advance the Understanding of Condensed Matters?
    YAO Zhenwei
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  106-107.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.048
    Abstract ( 838 )   PDF (1220KB) ( 413 )   Save
    From the perspective of physics, this paper presents an introduction to the concept of topological defect in condensed matter systems, and illustrates the fundamental role of topological defects on phase transitions and collective behaviors of condensed matters.
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    Is There a Unified Theory for Heat Transfer at Ultimate Scales?
    ZHAO Changying,WANG Boxiang,CHEN Jie,ZHANG Wenbin,HUANG Tiancheng,LIU Mengqi
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  108-109.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.049
    Abstract ( 532 )   PDF (951KB) ( 234 )   Save
    With the miniaturization of electronic devices and intelligent manufacturing, the problem of heat transfer at ultimate scales is becoming increasingly prominent. Therefore, this paper disscusses the applicability and unification of thermal radiation and thermal conduction at ultimate scales. Moreover, it proposes that it is critical to have a unified theory of heat transfer at ultimate scales, especially for solving the problems in electronics thermal management and atomic-level intelligent manufacturing.
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    How Small an Object Can Be Observed by an Optical Microscope?
    WANG Tiesheng
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  110-111.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.050
    Abstract ( 1107 )   PDF (468KB) ( 304 )   Save
    By considering the smallest feature that can be observed by an optical microscope, the development of optical microscopy and the efforts made to break the diffraction limit were reviewed. Optical microscopy is crucial for science at small scales. Although the diffraction limit has been overcome, the continuous effort made in this field would enable a further improvement in resolution.
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    Can Solid-State Thermoelectric Generators Acquire Efficiency of Carnot Engines?
    DUAN Yiling, LIU Zuolin, LIN Shangchao
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  112-115.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.051
    Abstract ( 777 )   PDF (2151KB) ( 491 )   Save
    This paper briefly describes the differences and similarities between solid-state thermoelectric generators and classical Carnot engines at the thermodynamic level. The reasons behind the irreversibility in solid-state thermoelectric conversion are summarized. Enhancing thermoelectric figure of merit can only push the energy conversion efficiency towards the ideal Carnot limit within a certain electric conductivity region. By comparing with the output power of endoreversible Carnot engines, this paper demonstrates the importance of contact thermal resistance and heat exchanging rate to the thermoelectric conversion performance.
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    Physical Science
    How High Energy Can Humans Accelerate Particles?
    CHEN Min,SHENG Zhengming
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  116-117.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.052
    Abstract ( 606 )   PDF (584KB) ( 157 )   Save
    High-energy particles are the most powerful tools for exploring the microscopic structure of matter and unraveling the structure and evolution of the universe, but it is unknown how high energy humans can accelerate particles due to the limited acceleration field strength and distance of accelerators. Recently, a series of novel acceleration technologies, such as plasma acceleration and laser acceleration, have the potential to greatly improve the energy of accelerated particles and provide more powerful tools for human exploration of the nature.
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    What Is the Nature of Higgs Field?
    YANG Haijun
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  118-120.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.053
    Abstract ( 931 )   PDF (1758KB) ( 305 )   Save
    The discovery of the Higgs boson explains the origin of the mass of elementary particles, which is the cornerstone of the Standard Model (SM). The comprehensive studies of the Higgs boson field and properties will help to understand several fundamental questions, such as electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism, dark matter, electroweak phase transition, and matter and antimatter asymmetry.
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    How to Achieve Atomic Reorganization Under Normal Conditions
    LU Wenjun
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  121-122.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.054
    Abstract ( 968 )   PDF (341KB) ( 311 )   Save
    At present, the transformation of chemical substances mainly depends on the reconstruction of molecules, i.e., molecular reactions. If an atom in a molecule under normal conditions can be arbitrarily changed instead of replacing atoms,or some specific atoms can be directly reorganized to afford new atoms, it will make atomic reactions be transformed into practical chemical reactions.
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    Cosmology and Earth Sciences
    When Is the Deadline for Humans to Evacuate from the Earth?
    ZHANG Jiawei,LIU Chenguang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  123-124.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.055
    Abstract ( 623 )   PDF (265KB) ( 281 )   Save
    The earth cannot always be suitable for human habitation, and when to evacuate from the earth should be considered. Considering the solar life span, cosmic ray threat, the impact of extraterrestrial objects, and environmental changes, it is essential to calculate the latest expected time for humans to complete the technology for livable planet search, interstellar navigation, and interstellar colonization.
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    In What Form Does an Alien Life Exist?
    LI Tingting,LIU Chenguang
    2021, 55 (Sup.1):  125-126.  doi: 10.16183/j.cnki.jsjtu.2021.S1.056
    Abstract ( 833 )   PDF (251KB) ( 317 )   Save
    The evidence of the existence of extraterrestrial organism increases gradually with the mystery of the universe unveiled. What would be the form of an alien life if it exists? The exploration of extraterrestrial life is beneficial for humans to regain a sense of their own worth, be ready for opportunities, safeguard against dangers, develop science and technology, and improve ourselves.
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