Table of Content

    28 November 2022, Volume 27 Issue 6 Previous Issue   

    Aeronautics and Astronautics
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    Aeronautics and Astronautics
    Sealing Performance of Pressure-Adaptive Seal
    LI Yuanfeng (李元丰), WANG Yiling (王怡灵), ZHANG Wanxin∗ (张万欣), LIU Jinian (刘冀念), MA Jialu (马加炉)
    2022, 27 (6):  747-756.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-022-2510-x
    Abstract ( 470 )   PDF (2268KB) ( 176 )  
    A pressure-adaptive seal is developed to meet the demands of quick assembling and disassembling for an individual protection equipment in aerospace. The analysis model, which reflects the main characteristics of the seal structure, is built based on the finite element method and the Roth’s theory of rubber seal, and verified by the prototype test. The influences of precompression ratio, hardness of the sealing ring rubber, and friction coefficient on the sealing performance are investigated by variable parameter method. Results show that the model can describe the essential characteristics of the pressure-adaptive seal structure, which has good follow-up to the cavity pressure to achieve the purpose of pressure self-adaptive. The leakage rate correlates negatively with the precompression ratio of the sealing ring and the hardness of the sealing ring material, while is positively related to the friction coefficient between the sealing ring and the sealing edge. The maximum contact stress on sealing surface has negative correlation with the precompression ratio of the sealing ring, and positive correlation with the hardness of the seal ring material. The damage risk of the sealing ring increases with the increases of the precompression ratio of sealing ring, hardness of sealing ring material, and friction coefficient.
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    Airframe Damage Region Division Method Based on Structure Tensor Dynamic Operator
    CAI Shuyu∗ (蔡舒妤), SHI Lizhong (师利中)
    2022, 27 (6):  757-767.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-022-2498-2
    Abstract ( 245 )   PDF (1607KB) ( 81 )  
    In order to improve the accuracy of damage region division and eliminate the interference of damage adjacent region, the airframe damage region division method based on the structure tensor dynamic operator is proposed in this paper. The structure tensor feature space is established to represent the local features of damage images. It makes different damage images have the same feature distribution, and transform varied damage region division into consistent process of feature space division. On this basis, the structure tensor dynamic operator generation method is designed. It integrates with bacteria foraging optimization algorithm improved by defining double fitness function and chemotaxis rules, in order to calculate the parameters of dynamic operator generation method and realize the structure tensor feature space division. And then the airframe damage region division is realized. The experimental results on different airframe structure damage images show that compared with traditional threshold division method, the proposed method can improve the division quality. The interference of damage adjacent region is eliminated. The information loss caused by over-segmentation is avoided. And it is efficient in operation, and consistent in process. It also has the applicability to different types of structural damage.
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    Construction on Aerodynamic Surrogate Model of Stratospheric Airship
    QIN Pengfei (秦鹏飞), WANG Xiaoliang∗ (王晓亮)
    2022, 27 (6):  768-779.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-022-2494-6
    Abstract ( 245 )   PDF (3866KB) ( 71 )  
    Stratospheric airship can stay at an altitude of 20 km for a long time and carry various loads to achieve long-term stable applications. Conventional stratospheric airship configuration mainly includes a low-resistance streamline hull and inflatable “X”-layout fins that realize the self-stabilization. A fast aerodynamic predictive method is needed in the optimization design of airship configuration and the flight performance analysis. In this paper, a predictive surrogate model of aerodynamic parameters is constructed for the stratospheric airship with “X” fins based on the neural network. First, a geometric shape parameterized model, and a flow field parameterized model were established, and the aerodynamic coefficients of airships with different shapes used as the training and test samples were calculated based on computational fluid dynamics (SA turbulence model). The improved Bayesian regularized neural network was used as the surrogate model, and 20 types of airships with different shapes were used to test the effectiveness of network. It showed that the correlation coefficients of Cx, Cy, Cz, CM,x, CM,y, CM,z were 0.928 7, 0.991 7, 0.991 9, 0.958 2, 0.986 1, 0.984 2, respectively. The aerodynamic coefficient distribution contour at different angles of attack and sideslip angles is used to verify the reliability of the method. The method can provide an effective way for a rapid estimation of aerodynamic coefficients in the airship design.
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    Effect of Moving Endwall on Hub Leakage Flow of Cantilevered Stator in a Linear Compressor Cascade
    ZHENG Biaojie (郑标颉), MA Yuchen (马宇晨), TENG Jinfang∗ (滕金芳), JU Zhenzhou (居振州), ZHU Mingmin (朱铭敏)
    2022, 27 (6):  780-789.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-022-2468-8
    Abstract ( 179 )   PDF (2018KB) ( 42 )  
    The cantilevered stator has the advantages of reducing mass and axial length of highly loaded compressor. The details of the hub leakage flow resulting from the clearance between the high-speed moving hub and the cantilevered stator hub are unclear. In this paper, the effect of a moving endwall on the hub leakage flow of a cantilevered stator in a linear compressor cascade was studied. After the simulation method was verified with the experimental results, the time-averaged results of unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) were selected to study a case with a hub clearance of 2 mm. The results show that the effect of the moving endwall of the cantilevered cascade on the general characteristics with below 30% span increases the leakage mass flow rate and reduces the static pressure coefficient at three conditions of 0°, 6°, and -7° incidences, and the change is most significant at -7° incidence. The effect of the moving endwall on the total pressure loss coefficient varies with different operating conditions, which decreases by 15.94% at 0° incidence, and increases by 4.77% and 18.51% at 6° incidence and -7° incidence, respectively. The influence of the moving endwall is below 14% span at -7° incidence, below 23% span at 0° incidence, and below 30% span at 6° incidence. These effects correspond to the static pressure coefficient and the difference of static pressure coefficient representing the blade loading. In designing the cantilevered stator and matching between the stages of a multistage compressor, the quantitative research results of this paper have certain guiding significance.
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    Data Driven Model-Free Adaptive Control Method for Quadrotor Trajectory Tracking Based on Improved Sliding Mode Algorithm
    YUAN Dongdong (袁冬冬), WANG Yankai∗ (王彦恺)
    2022, 27 (6):  790-798.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-020-2254-4
    Abstract ( 196 )   PDF (1004KB) ( 53 )  
    In order to solve the problems of dynamic modeling and complicated parameters identification of trajectory tracking control of the quadrotor, a data driven model-free adaptive control method based on the improved sliding mode control (ISMC) algorithm is designed, which does not depend on the precise dynamic model of the quadrotor. The design of the general sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm depends on the mathematical model of the quadrotor and has chattering problems. In this paper, according to the dynamic characteristics of the quadrotor, an adaptive update law is introduced and a saturation function is used to improve the SMC. The proposed control strategy has an inner and an outer loop control structures. The outer loop position control provides the required reference attitude angle for the inner loop. The inner loop attitude control ensures rapid convergence of the attitude angle. The effectiveness and feasibility of the algorithm are verified by mathematical simulation. The mathematical simulation results show that the designed model-free adaptive control method of the quadrotor is effective, and it can effectively realize the trajectory tracking control of the quadrotor. The design of the controller does not depend on the kinematic and dynamic models of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and has high control accuracy, stability, and robustness.
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    Air Combat Assignment Problem Based on Bayesian Optimization Algorithm
    FU Lia (傅 莉), LONG Xia∗ (龙 洗), HE Wenbinb (何文斌)
    2022, 27 (6):  799-805.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-021-2270-z
    Abstract ( 189 )   PDF (519KB) ( 48 )  
    In order to adapt to the changing battlefield situation and improve the combat effectiveness of air combat, the problem of air battle allocation based on Bayesian optimization algorithm (BOA) is studied. First, we discuss the number of fighters on both sides, and apply cluster analysis to divide our fighter into the same number of groups as the enemy. On this basis, we sort each of our fighters’ different advantages to the enemy fighters, and obtain a series of target allocation schemes for enemy attacks by first in first serviced criteria. Finally, the maximum advantage function is used as the target, and the BOA is used to optimize the model. The simulation results show that the established model has certain decision-making ability, and the BOA can converge to the global optimal solution at a faster speed, which can effectively solve the air combat task assignment problem.
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    Multi-UAV Route Re-Generation Method Based on Trajectory Data
    YUAN Dongdong (袁冬冬), WANG Yankai∗ (王彦恺), BAI Jiaqi (白嘉琪)
    2022, 27 (6):  806-816.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-021-2332-2
    Abstract ( 170 )   PDF (1409KB) ( 56 )  
    A large quantity of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) trajectory data related to air traffic information has important value in engineering fields. However, the cost of data and trajectory processing limits the applications, and as the number of UAVs increases rapidly, future UAVs’ path data will be very large. Therefore, this paper designs a multi-UAV route re-generation method based on trajectory data, which can realize the UAVs’ path data compression, de-aggregation, and regeneration tasks. Based on the trajectory data, the three-dimensional Douglas-Peucker algorithm is used to compress the trajectory data to reduce the storage space. The improved B-spline path smoothing algorithm based on the reversing control point is used to depolymerize and smooth the path. Simulation experiments show that the above multi-UAV route re-generation algorithm can obtain a more optimized path while maintaining the important characteristics of the original path.
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    Further Result on the Observer Design for One-Sided Lipschitz Systems
    YANG Ming1 (杨 明), HUANG Jun1∗ (黄 俊), ZHANG Wei2 (章 伟)
    2022, 27 (6):  817-822.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-020-2252-6
    Abstract ( 225 )   PDF (328KB) ( 89 )  
    This paper investigates the problem of observer design for a class of control systems. Different from current works, the nonlinear functions in the system only satisfy the property of the one-sided Lipschitz (OSL) condition but not quadratic inner-boundedness (QIB). Moreover, the case where the OSL constant is negative is specially investigated. Firstly, a full-order observer is constructed for the original system. Then, a reduced-order observer is also designed by using the decomposition method. The advantage and effectiveness of the proposed design scheme are shown in a numerical simulation.
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    Impact Angle/Time Constraint Guidance Design Based on Fast Terminal Error Dynamics
    QIN Xuesheng (秦雪升), LIU Yuanhe (刘远贺), LI Kebo (黎克波), LIANG Yangang∗ (梁彦刚)
    2022, 27 (6):  823-832.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-022-2509-3
    Abstract ( 184 )   PDF (532KB) ( 43 )  
    Considering the problem that the optimal error dynamics can only converge at the terminal time, an impact angle/time constraint missile guidance law with finite-time convergence is designed in this paper, which is based on the pure proportional navigation (PPN) guidance law and the fast terminal error dynamics (FTED) approach. The missile guidance model and FTED equation are given first, and the dynamic equation of impact angle/time error based on PPN is also derived. Then, the guidance law is designed based on FTED, and the guidance error can converge to 0 in a finite time. Furthermore, considering the field of view constraint, the guidance law is improved by using the saturation function mapping method. Finally, a numerical simulation example is given to verify the effectiveness of the guidance law, which shows that the guidance law proposed in this paper can make the missile quickly adjust to the desired states in advance, and effectively relieve the overload saturation pressure of the actuator.
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    Semantic Segmentation-Based Road Marking Detection Using Around View Monitoring System
    XU Hanqing (徐汉卿), YANG Ming∗ (杨 明), DENG Liuyuan (邓琉元), LI Hao (李 颢), WANG Chunxiang, (王春香), HAN Weibin (韩伟斌), YU Yuelong (于跃龙)
    2022, 27 (6):  833-843.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-021-2401-6
    Abstract ( 234 )   PDF (1134KB) ( 54 )  
    Road marking detection is an important branch in autonomous driving, understanding the road information. In recent years, deep-learning-based semantic segmentation methods for road marking detection have been arising since they can generalize detection result well under complicated environments and hold rich pixel-level semantic information. Nevertheless, the previous methods mostly study the training process of the segmentation network, while omitting the time cost of manually annotating pixel-level data. Besides, the pixel-level semantic segmentation results need to be fitted into more reliable and compact models so that geometrical information of road markings can be explicitly obtained. In order to tackle the above problems, this paper describes a semantic segmentation-based road marking detection method using around view monitoring system. A semiautomatic semantic annotation platform is developed, which exploits an auxiliary segmentation graph to speed up the annotation process while guaranteeing the annotation accuracy. A segmentation-based detection module is also described, which models the semantic segmentation results for the more robust and compact analysis. The proposed detection module is composed of three parts: vote-based segmentation fusion filtering, graph-based road marking clustering, and road-marking fitting. Experiments under various scenarios show that the semantic segmentation-based detection method can achieve accurate, robust, and real-time detection performance.
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    Non-Line-of-Sight Multipath Detection Method for BDS/GPS Fusion System Based on Deep Learning
    SU Hong1 (苏 红), WU Bozhao2 (吴博钊), MAO Xuchu1∗ (茅旭初)
    2022, 27 (6):  844-854.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-022-2430-9
    Abstract ( 174 )   PDF (3108KB) ( 45 )  
    Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) multipath effect is the main factor that restricts the application of global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in complex environments, especially in urban canyon. The effective avoidance of NLOS signals can significantly improve the positioning performance of GNSS receiver. In this paper, an NLOS/LOS classification model based on recurrent neural network is proposed to classify satellite signals received in urban canyon environments. The accuracy of classification is 91%, and the recognition rate of NLOS is 89%; the classification performance is better than that of traditional machine learning classification models such as support vector machine. For BeiDou navigation satellite system/global positioning system (BDS/GPS) fusion system, the least square algorithm and extended Kalman filter are used to estimate the position. The experimental results show that the three-dimensional positioning accuracy after NLOS recognition is improved about 60% on average compared with the traditional methods, and the positioning stability is also improved significantly.
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    System Life and Reliability Modeling of a Multiple Power Takeoffs Accessory Gearbox Transmission
    WANG Kai∗ (汪 凯), WANG Xianliang (王宪良), ZHU Jiazan (朱加赞), OU Daisong (欧代松), PAN Daifeng (潘代锋)
    2022, 27 (6):  855-866.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-022-2473-y
    Abstract ( 287 )   PDF (1635KB) ( 30 )  
    A mathematical model for system life and reliability of a multiple power takeoffs aeroengine accessory gearbox transmission is presented. The geometry model of gear train is distributed into several subsystems by different transmitted powers. The lives of each component are combined to determine the units, subsystems and entire system lives sequentially according to a strict series probability model. The unit and subsystem interface models are defined to dispose the loads of common components. The algorithm verification is presented and a numerical example is given to illustrate the use of this program. The initial design could not fulfill the life requirement. A design modification shows that the gear train has a more balanced life distribution by strengthening the weak parts, and the overall life of entire system is increased above the design requirement. This program can help the designer to approach an optimal accessory gearbox transmission design efficiently.
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    Reliability Evaluation of Two-Phase Degradation Process with a Fuzzy Change-Point
    LIU Kai1 (刘 凯), DANG Wei1 (党 炜), ZOU Tianji1,2∗ (邹田骥), LÜ Congmin1 (吕从民), LI Peng1,2 (李 鹏), ZHANG Haitao1 (张海涛)
    2022, 27 (6):  867-872.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-021-2323-3
    Abstract ( 215 )   PDF (484KB) ( 62 )  
    For some products, degradation mechanisms change during testing, and therefore, their degradation patterns vary at different points in time; these points are called change-points. Owing to the limitation of measurement costs, time intervals for degradation measurements are usually very long, and thus, the value of change-points cannot be determined. Conventionally, a certain degradation measurement is selected as the change-point in a two-phase degradation process. According to the tendency of the two-phase degradation process, the change-point is probably located in the interval between two neighboring degradation measurements, and it is a fuzzy variable. The imprecision of the change-point may lead to the incorrect product’s reliability evaluation results. In this paper, based on the fuzzy theory, a two-phase degradation model with a fuzzy change-point and a statistical analysis method are proposed. First, a two-phase Wiener degradation model is developed according to the membership function of the change-point. Second, the reliability evaluation is carried out using maximum likelihood estimation and a fuzzy simulation approach. Finally, the proposed methodology is verified via a case study. The results of the study show that the proposed methodology can achieve more believable reliability evaluation results compared with those of the conventional approach.
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    Meso-Scale Tearing Mechanism Analysis of Flexible Fabric Composite for Stratospheric Airship via Experiment and Numerical Simulation
    CHEN Yonglin (陈永霖), YANG Weidong (杨伟东), XIE Weicheng (谢炜程), WANG Xiaoliang (王晓亮), FU Gongyi∗ (付功义)
    2022, 27 (6):  873-884.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-022-2431-8
    Abstract ( 130 )   PDF (4194KB) ( 178 )  
    Stratospheric airships are controllable lighter-than-air aircraft and have great potential application in surveillance and communication. The envelopes, one of the main structures of a stratospheric airship, are generally made of flexible fabric composites to be lightweight, high strength, capable of containing lifting gas, and resistant to the harsh stratospheric environment. The composites, however, are prone to tearing. Hence, their tearing behavior has attracted great attention. This paper explores the meso-scale tearing mechanism of an envelope and the temperature influence on its tear strength via experiment and numerical simulation. Biaxial tear tests were conducted on cruciform specimens, which were contacted with liquids (cold alcohol or hot water) at different temperatures including -25, 20, 50, 80 °C. The specimens’ tear stresses were measured and the meso-scale tearing behavior was captured with a microscope. Besides, a novel finite element analysis model based on truss and spring elements was established to simulate the tearing behavior. It was found that the simulation result has a relative agreement with the tests. The simulation results show that the maximum tear stress of the envelope drops by 39.62% as the temperature rises from -60 °C to 80 °C and the tensile properties of yarns and matrix account for stress concentration around a crack tip. This work deeply reveals the meso-scale tearing mechanism of the envelope and provides a valuable reference for exploring tearing properties of flexible fabric composites.
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