Table of Content

    30 June 2012, Volume 17 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Degradation Behavior of Epoxy Resins in Fibre Metal Laminates Under Thermal Conditions
    ZHU Guo-liang1,2 (祝国梁), XIAO Yan-ping1,3 (肖艳萍), YANG Yong-xiang1,3,4 (杨永祥)
    2012, 17 (3):  257-262.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1264-2
    Abstract ( 1114 )  
    GLARE (glass fibre/epoxy reinforced aluminum laminate) is a member of the fiber metal laminate (FML) family, and is built up of alternating metal and fiber layers. About 500m2 GLARE is employed in each Airbus A380 because of the superior mechanical properties over the monolithic aluminum alloys, such as weight reduction, improved damage tolerance and higher ultimate tensile strength. Many tons of new GLARE scraps have been accumulated during the Airbus A380 manufacturing. Moreover, with the increasing plane orders of Airbus A380, more and more end-of-life (EOL) GLARE scrap will be generated after retire of planes within forty years. Thermal processing is a potential method for the material recycling and re-use from GLARE with the aim of environmental protection and economic benefits. The current study indicatdes that thermal delamination is a crucial pre-treatment step for the GLARE recycling. The decomposition behavior of the epoxy resins at elevated temperatures was investigated by using the simultaneous thermal analysis, thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Based on the thermal analysis results, GLARE thermal delamination experiments at refined temperatures were carried out to optimize the treatment temperature and holding time.
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    Recycling of Aluminum from Fibre Metal Laminates
    ZHU Guo-liang1,2 (祝国梁), XIAO Yan-ping1,3 (肖艳萍), YANG Yong-xiang1,3,4 (杨永祥)
    2012, 17 (3):  263-267.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1265-1
    Abstract ( 976 )  
    Recycling of aluminum alloy scrap obtained from delaminated fibre metal laminates (FMLs) was studied through high temperature refining in the presence of a salt flux. The aluminum alloy scrap contains approximately mass fraction w(Cu) = 4.4%, w(Mg) = 1.1% and w(Mn) = 0.6% (2024 aluminum alloy). The main objective of this research is to obtain a high metal yield, while maintaining its original alloy compositions. The work focuses on the metal yield and quality of recycled Al alloy under different refining conditions. The NaCl-KCl salt system was selected as the major components of flux in the Al alloy recycling. Two different flux compositions were employed at NaCl to KCl mass ratios of 44:56 and 70:30 respectively, based on either the eutectic composition, or the European preference. Different additives were introduced into the NaCl-KCl system to study the effect of flux component on recycling result. Although burning and oxidation loss of the alloying elements during re-melting and refining take place as the drawbacks of conventional refining process, the problems can be solved to a large extent by using an appropriate salt flux. Experimental results indicate that Mg in the alloy gets lost when adding cryolite in the NaCl-KCl salt system, though the metal yield can reach as high as 98%. However, by adding w(MgF2) = 5% into the NaCl-KCl salt system (instead of using cryolite) all alloying elements were well controlled to its original composition with a metal yield of almost 98%.
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    Study on the Thermal Stability of Cu-14Fe in Situ Composite without and with Trace Ag
    LIU Yong1 (刘勇), SHAO Shuang1 (邵爽), XU Chun-shui1 (徐春水), LIU Ke-ming2 (刘克明)
    2012, 17 (3):  268-272.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1266-0
    Abstract ( 1217 )  
    The thermal stability of Cu-14Fe and Cu-14Fe-0.07Ag in situ composites is investigated. The evolution of Fe filaments in two composites is analyzed detailedly by annealing at high temperature. The results indicate that the Cu-14Fe in situ composite exhibits two kinds of evolution of Fe filament, the longitudinal splitting of Fe filaments at low temperature (below 600℃) and spheroidization of Fe filaments at high temperature (above 600℃). With the addition of trace Ag, the longitudinal splitting of Fe filaments at low temperature is accelerated, while spheroidization of Fe filaments at high temperature inhibited. The microstructure evolution procedure of Cu-14Fe without and with trace Ag has been modeled. This work would promote the understanding of the microstructure evolution of Cu-Fe in situ composite.
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    Improvements of Elevated Temperature Strength and Creep Resistance of Mg-12Zn-4Al Based Alloy with Calcium Addition
    WAN Xiao-feng (万晓峰), NI Hong-jun (倪红军), HUANG Ming-yu (黄明宇)
    2012, 17 (3):  273-276.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1267-z
    Abstract ( 1086 )  
    A series of Mg-12Zn-4Al-0.3Mn (ZA124) based alloys with additions of calcium have been prepared and their microstructure and properties have been investigated. The results show that Mg-12Zn-4Al-0.3Mn alloy consists of the α-Mg matrix and block quasicrystal and exhibits excellent creep resistance compared to commonly used AZ91 alloy. A small amount of calcium addition to the ZA124 based alloys increased the yield strenghth at both ambient and elevated temperatures as well as creep resistance, although the ductility decreased slightly. Microanalysis indicated that the addition of calcium decreased the quasicrystalline phase and caused the formation of some lamellar precipitates of Al2Mg5Zn2 with orthorhombic crystal structure. This Ca-containing Al2Mg5Zn2 phase with high stability straddled the grain boundaries and strengthened grain boundaries by inhibiting crack propagation during creep tests at elevated temperature.
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    Purification Effects of C2Cl6 on A00 Aluminum
    NI Hong-jun1 (倪红军), SUN Bao-de2 (孙宝德), WANG Xing-xing1 (汪兴兴)
    2012, 17 (3):  277-281.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1268-y
    Abstract ( 922 )  
    The effects of several fluxes on purification, microstructures and properties of A00 aluminum have been studied. The experimental results and analyses indicate that many cracks and large porosities exist in the surface film above the melt purified by C2Cl6 and that the film is floc and mostly composed of Al2O3 and pure aluminum, which carries many carbon particles and AlCl3 not fully volatilized. And then over 50% (mass fraction) of the all-melting residue is pure aluminum, which is one of the major reasons for high melting loss. Moreover, because of a mass of gas bubbles and a state of seethe, there are many inclusions which size is under 10 μm in the microstructure of A00 aluminum purified with C2Cl6 or fluxes containing C2Cl6. With this purifying method, the aluminum crystal grains are extended along the radius that was observed firstly and the average crystal size of A00 aluminum are about 100—150 μm. In addition, small size inclusions have little affected on tensile strength and micro inclusions under 10 μm have little affected on elongation.
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    Metallurgical Applications of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field
    ZHANG Yong-jie1 (张永杰), CHEN Guo-jun2 (陈国军), TANG Chen-long3 (唐成龙)
    2012, 17 (3):  282-285.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1269-x
    Abstract ( 933 )  
    This paper reviews the current applied research of the pulsed electromagnetic field in the metallurgical area of solidification, plastic deformation and electro-deposition. The possibilities of developing the field applications are analyzed when viewing from the processes of the metallurgy industry. It covers refining grain in the solidification process under the pulsed electromagnetic field, rolling of the thin plate deformation with the help of the electro-plastic effects by the pulsed power supplies and pulsed plating of pure metals or alloys onto the surface of the running steel strip.
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    Thermodynamic Analyse on Equilibrium Precipitation Phases and Composition Design of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloys
    YU Jing-jing (于晶晶), LI Xiao-mei (李晓梅), YU Xin-quan (余新泉)
    2012, 17 (3):  286-290.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1270-4
    Abstract ( 1277 )  
    The solidification paths of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys and its precipitation behavior are analyzed using software package JMatPro 6.0 for material property simulation of Al-base alloys. The microstructures of the experimental alloys are analyzed; the experimental results of microstructural analysis are in agreement with the thermodynamic prediction. Through orthogonal experimental method, this paper designs the composition of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys by studying the variation of η (MgZn2) phase, S (Al2CuMg) phase, T (AlZnMgCu) phase amount and precipitation temperatures with different Zn, Mg and Cu contents. It is found that with the optimum mass fraction of Zn of 6.7%, Mg of 2.2%—2.5% and Cu of 1.6%—2.0%, the mass fraction of η phase can be up to 8.7%—9.22% and that of S phase and T phase can be lower than 0.5%.
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    Effect of La Addition on Electrochemical Properties of Amorphous LaMg11Zr+200Ni Alloy
    LIU Zi-li (刘子利), ZHOU Gui-bin (周桂斌), YAN Xin-chun (闫新春), LIU Xi-qin (刘希琴)
    2012, 17 (3):  291-296.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1271-3
    Abstract ( 1291 )  
    The effect of La addition on the structure and electrochemical properties of amorphous LaMg11Zr+200Ni (LaMg11Zr : Ni = 1 : 2, m : m) hydrogen storage alloy prepared by mechanical alloying was investigated systematically. The results show that the alloys have an amorphous structure after 20 h ball-milling and the particles are significantly refined with the addition of La. The electrochemical tests indicate that the charging resistance of the alloy electrodes decreases with the addition of La. The maximum discharge capacity of the alloy electrodes increases with the increase of La addition, while the cyclic stability and high-rate discharge performance increase firstly and then decrease as the La content increases. When the mass fraction of La is up to 5%, the maximum discharge capacity after charging/discharging of 30 cycles of the alloy electrode is increased from 576.2 to 597.5mA · h/g, and the capacity retention rate and high-rate dischargeability (HRD) of the alloy electrode are increased by 20.5% and 29.4% respectively compared with those of the alloy electrode without the La addition, exhibiting the best comprehensive electrochemical performances.
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    Microstructures and Mechanical Properties of Various Mg-Li Wrought Alloys
    JIANG Bin1 (姜斌), LIU Xu-he1 (刘旭贺), WU Rui-zhi1 (巫瑞智), ZHANG Mi-lin1 (张密林)
    2012, 17 (3):  297-300.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1272-2
    Abstract ( 1209 )  
    Three kinds of ultra-light Mg-Li wrought alloys, Mg-5.5Li-3Al-1Zn-1Ce, Mg-7.0Li-3Al-1Zn-1Ce and Mg-10.5Li-3Al-1Zn-1Ce, were prepared by vacuum induction melting furnace; then the alloys were extruded and rolled. The microstructures and properties of these alloys were studied. The results indicate that the Mg-5.5Li- 3Al-1Zn-1Ce alloy has the highest strength, the Mg-10.5Li-3Al-1Zn-1Ce alloy has maximum elongation, and the Mg-7.0Li-3Al-1Zn-1Ce alloy has good comprehensive performance. Rolling deformation can increase strength further after extrusion deformation.
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    Grain Refining Mechanism of Carbon Inoculation on Mg-Al Alloy
    LI Ke (李克), WANG Fei (王飞), WANG Qian (王倩), ZHOU Nai-geng (周耐根)
    2012, 17 (3):  301-305.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1273-1
    Abstract ( 1117 )  
    The processing parameters and refining mechanism of Mg-Al alloy treated with a newly developed carbon inoculant under different conditions were investigated experimentally in this work. Results show that the finest α-Mg grain in AZ91D alloy can be obtained after processing at about 740℃, and the average grain size of α-Mg grain decreases from about 180.4 to 85.6 μm by adding mass fraction win = 1% inoculant into melt. However, no evident refinement was achieved with excessive inoculant for Mn-free Mg-9Al alloy. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photo, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis on the Mn-contained intermediate phase and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results indicate that Mn element plays an important role in the heterogeneous nucleation of α-Mg grain. In the early stage of solidification, Al-Mn-C compound particles formed on the surface of Al4C3 nano-particles should be the potential nuclei for primary α-Mg and probably responsible for the grain refinement achieved in the carbon inoculation process.
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    Simulation and Discussion on the Decreasing Flow Stress Scale Effect
    SHEN Yu1 (申昱), YU Hu-ping1 (于沪平), DONG Xiang-huai1 (董湘怀), GUO Bin (郭斌)2
    2012, 17 (3):  306-311.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1274-0
    Abstract ( 1152 )  
    The miniaturization of products requires the mass production of microparts. The microforming can well meet this requirement. Due to the emergence of decreasing flow stress scale effect in the micro scale, the traditional forming process and theory may fail. Based on the crystal plasticity theory, upsetting tests of micro copper cylinders with different dimensions and grain sizes were simulated, and the decreasing flow stress scale effect was studied and discussed. Results show that with the decrease of billet dimensions, the flow stress is gradually decreased, and the decreasing flow stress scale effect is emerged; with the increase of grain size, the decreasing flow stress scale effect is more remarkable. It can also be seen that the decreasing flow stress scale effect can be well simulated with the crystal plasticity theory, and the necessary relevant information is provided for deeper understanding on this scale effect, as well as the design of processes and die structures in the microforming.
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    Analyse of Warm Surface Rolling on the Grooved Steel Axle
    LIU Xiang-rua (刘香茹), ZHOU Xu-dongb (周旭东)
    2012, 17 (3):  312-314.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1275-z
    Abstract ( 993 )  
    Warm surface rolling is a working process between room temperature and re-crystallization temperature. With warm surface rolling of steel grade 45 grooved axle, its fatigue lifespan was measured by the endurance bending test. The influence of surface rolling reduction on the axle fatigue life period was experimentally studied at different surface rolling temperatures. The experimental results show that the fatigue life of the steel axles can be significantly improved by the warm surface rolling process. The optimum rolling reductions for the maximum fatigue life at different warm surface rolling temperatures were explored. The microstructures of the steel axles were analyzed. The surface strength improved by refining grains after the warm surface rolling was calculated by the Hall-Petch model. These research achievements could be also valuable to the relevant works.
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    Forging Penetration Efficiency of Steel H13 Stepped Shaft Radial Forging with GFM Forging Machine
    ZHOU Xu-dong1 (周旭东), LIU Xiang-ru2 (刘香茹), XING Jian-bin3 (型建斌)
    2012, 17 (3):  315-318.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1276-y
    Abstract ( 1540 )  
    The numerical thermal mechanical simulation of radial forging process of steel H13 stepped shaft with GFM (Gesellschaft fur Fertigungstechnik undMaschinenbau) forging machine was carried out by three-dimensional finite element code DEFORM 3D. According to the effective plastic strain, the mean stress and the mean plastic strain distribution of the radial forging, the forging penetration efficiency (FPE) was studied throughout each operation. The results show that the effective plastic strain in the center of the forging is always greater than zero for the desirable larger axial drawing velocity. The mean stress in the center of the workpiece is proposed to describe hydrostatic pressure in this paper. There is compressive strain layer beneath the surface of the workpiece to be found, while there is tensile strain core in the center of the workpiece. These results could be a valuable reference for designing the similar forging operations.
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    Studies of High-Efficiency Electrical Steels Used in Electric Vehicle Motors
    PEI Rui-lin1 (裴瑞琳), ZENG Lu-bin2 (曾鹿滨), CHEN Xiao1 (陈晓), LIU Xian-dong1 (刘献东)
    2012, 17 (3):  319-322.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1277-x
    Abstract ( 1596 )  
    Application of permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) has been increasingly popular in electric vehicle (EV) area since cost-effective electrical steels were recently discovered. This paper mainly presents the performance and characteristics of EV motors using varieties of high-efficiency electrical steels. At first, the electro-magnetic and mechanical properties of electrical steels are described. Low loss, high induction and excellent mechanical strength are critical criteria to evaluate the electrical steel. However, the gage of electrical steel is a crucial factor to affect the properties. Secondly, the basic principle and algorithm for calculation of efficiency of an EV motor are explained. Finally, the modeling and experimental results for different gages of electrical steel sheets used in EV motors are analyzed.
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    Application of Image Morphology in Detecting and Extracting the Initial Welding Position
    WEI Shan-chun (卫善春), WANG Jian (王健), LIN Tao (林涛), CHEN Shan-ben (陈善本)
    2012, 17 (3):  323-326.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1278-9
    Abstract ( 1003 )  
    A method of image morphology in detecting and extracting the initial welding position during the autonomous welding process is described. During the process, firstly visual sensing technology is used to capture the straight seam image, and secondly the image edges are detected by morphological corrosion edge detection algorithm, with which can retain the critical information while filter other interferences effectively at the same time. Then morphological processing algorithm is used to conduct the direction of filter by selecting the multidirectional linear structuring elements and finally get the initial weld position point coordinates with the Hough transform. The algorithm is simple, rapid, self-adaptability with high accuracy for interferences except long lines so as to accomplish the entire process of detecting the initial welding position. It can meet the practical demands of automatic guidance for robotic welding.
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    Life Cycle Assessment of Biodegradable Plastics
    2012, 17 (3):  327-329.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1279-8
    Abstract ( 1096 )  
    Many industrial products made from fossil fuels cause the problems of global warming, depletion of fossil fuel resources and decrease of the land by landfill. In this report, the amounts of CO2 emissions as the environmental load and the specific energy consumptions as the depletion of fossil fuel resources of biodegradable plastics and conventional plastic as food trays are compared using life cycle assessment methodology. The amount of CO2 emission of PHB (poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate)) tray was the smallest among those of trays of other plastics. The specific energy consumption of SPCL (starch/polycaprolactone) was the smallest among those of trays of other plastics. It clearly reveals that the utilization of the biodegradable plastics is an effective way of alternatives of the conventional plastics.
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    Hydrogen Adsorption by Woodceramics Produced from Biomass
    TAKASAKI Akito1, IIJIMA Suguru1, YAMANE Tomoka1, OKABE Toshio2
    2012, 17 (3):  330-333.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1280-2
    Abstract ( 987 )  
    Hydrogen adsorption characteristics of woodceramics, made from radiata pine wood fiber boards carbonized at 1 473K after impregnation with phenolic resin, with and without chemical treatment in an alkaline (KOH) or an acid (H2 SO4) solution were investigated The hydrogen adsorption capacity is improved by chemical treatment. The chemical treatment by KOH improves the adsorption capacity more than by H2SO4. The improvement of the capacity level, in any solution, is dependent on the type of chemical in the solution and its concentration. The maximum hydrogen capacity measured at 93K is mass fraction about w(H) = 2% for the woodceramics after chemical treatment in a volume fraction ? = 50% KOH solution, although that is about w(H) = 0.7% for one without chemical treatment. The microscopic condition of pores in the woodceramics is thought to vary after chemical treatment.
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    Sustainability Perspectives When Crop Use Is Implemented in Different Sectors: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach
    2012, 17 (3):  334-336.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1281-1
    Abstract ( 954 )  
    The present study aims to provide a preliminary overview of the sustainability concept when biomasses conceived for food goals become the raw materials upon which different sectors, such as plastic or energy industry, can develop innovative strategies, according to a so called “greener” competitiveness. In the results hereafter presented, the definition of sustainability perspectives, according to the use of a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, will be described for maize use as raw material in different sectors. The current biopolymer industry and conventional biofuel technologies, the so called first-generation biofuels, are the more and more in competition with the food sector. The presented environmental evaluation, in terms of air emissions, energy and water consumption, is useful in order to understand the sustainability of a bio-sourced product, in comparison with the equivalent item produced by fossil fuels.
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    Antibacterial Analyse of Perovskite
    YANG He (杨合), LIU Dong (刘东), XUE Xiang-xin (薛向欣)
    2012, 17 (3):  337-340.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1282-0
    Abstract ( 978 )  
    We mainly studied the antibacterial properties of perovskite. Its structure was evaluated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption spectrometer etc. The antibacterial properties of perovskite to Candida albicans (ATCC10231), Escherichia coli (ATCC25922) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538) were investigated by the flask oscillation method. The results show that the perovskite has strong antibacterial ability, and continued antibacterial properties; its sterilization rates are 87.00%, 99.50%, 96.22% respectively to these three bacteria.
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    CO2 Emissions from Typical Cement Plants in China
    LI Chen1 (李琛), CUI Su-ping1 (崔素萍), WANG Zhi-hong1 (王志宏)
    2012, 17 (3):  341-344.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1283-z
    Abstract ( 1045 )  
    The objective is to know how the CO2 emits and how much the CO2 emits due to the cement manufacture in both direct and indirect ways with the increasing concerns about the global warming and the cement plants emitting huge CO2. A precise method to calculate CO2 emissions including three processes was established in this paper and a case study was provided. From the case of 23 typical plants in China, we can see the amount of CO2 emissions at the right level. The summary of CO2 emissions consists of emissions from raw materials, fuels and electricity. The average result of the 23 typical plants is 0.74 t CO2 per ton clinker in this study. Therefore, CO2 emissions from these typical cement plants were pictured and then measured. The creative point is that an approach provides a basic framework to identify various situations in different cement plants in China and other in the rest of the world. The framework would be useful in quantitatively evaluating CO2 emissions for government to know precisely CO2 emissions in the cement plants.
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    Durability of Concrete Made with Manganese Slag as Supplementary Cementitious Materials
    LIU Rong-jin1,2 (刘荣进), DING Qing-jun1 (丁庆军), CHEN Ping2,3 (陈平), YANG Guang-yao2 (杨光耀)
    2012, 17 (3):  345-349.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1284-y
    Abstract ( 961 )  
    This paper discusses mineral composition and pore microstructure characteristics of water-cooled manganese slag and its effects on durability of concrete. The Mn slag has an alveolate pore structure, and the ground Mn slag is characterized by multiangular shape which consists of α-C2S, C3MS2, CaO· MnO·2SiO2 and C2AS. Experimental results show that the Mn slag has potential hydraulic reactivity. Concrete made with Mn slag as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) exhibits very low strength loss and weight loss in the synthetic seawater corrosion and freezing-thawing cycle tests. The research provides useful reference for knowing about Mn slag and for applying Mn slag to improve the durability of concrete.
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    Development of Microbe Cementitious Material in China
    RONG Hui (荣辉), QIAN Chun-xiang (钱春香)
    2012, 17 (3):  350-355.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1285-x
    Abstract ( 1197 )  
    Microbe cementitious material as a binder has been developed due to the ever increasing awareness of environmental protection. The new cementitious material relies on microbiologically induced precipitation of calcium carbonate to bind loose particles or repair surface defects and cracks of cement-based material. This paper elaborates the research on loose sand particles cemented by microbe cement from three aspects: compressive strength, pore structure and microstructure. In addition, the research on restoration surface defects and cracks of cement-based material by microbe cement is introduced from two parameters: surface water absorption and compressive strength recover coefficient. The results show that microbe cementitious material can bind loose particles and repair surface defects or cracks of cement-based material.
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    Novel Material of Hydrogen Generation
    LUO Ping1 (罗平), DONG Shi-jie1 (董仕节), XIE Zhi-xiong2 (谢志雄)
    2012, 17 (3):  356-359.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1286-9
    Abstract ( 1045 )  
    A novel aluminum alloy which could react with water and generate hydrogen at room temperature was prepared via mechanical alloying (MA). The results shows that milling time, additives and mass ratio have a significant role in the hydrogen production rate. The highest hydrogen production rate of alloys reaches 95% of theoretical value. The velocity of hydrogen generation reaches more over 200mL/min for a gram alloy. Active materials (Ga and In) included in the aluminum alloys can be recycled and used repeatedly. The hydrolysis reaction between aluminum and H2O will take place and release a large amount of heat, which contributes to increasing the velocity of hydrogen generation. The reaction products consist of AlO(OH) and hydrogen.
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    Cork and Sustainability: Discussing the Sustainable Use of the Material from a Design Perspective
    ANA CARINA Pereira1,2, HAN Brezet1, HELENA Pereira2, JOOST Vogtlander1
    2012, 17 (3):  360-363.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1287-8
    Abstract ( 1046 )  
    There is the challenge to use materials in a more sustainable way. Even though cork has an interesting eco-profile as a material, other aspects contributing to an enhanced sustainable use of the resource are discussed: addressing the life-span of products, materials substitution, and the trend of materials development identified.
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    Limits to Resources, Economic Growth and Happiness
    2012, 17 (3):  364-369.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1288-7
    Abstract ( 921 )  
    Terrible scenario for the future aspect of our society was issued by “The Limits to Growth”. Basic problems that we confront are the restricted natural resources and the environment. Regarding the resources, the overall average of the reserve/production ratio is predicted to fall below 10 years by 2040. Aggressive developments of mines based on the sense of urgency for metal resources cause strong confliction with the environment and the people living there. Resultantly, urban mine becomes more realistic than before. From the view point of ecological foot print, 5.3 globes are needed if all the people living in the world attain the affluent life same as USA. On the other hand, it is clear that we can get larger utility by smaller goods if our scale of satisfaction is reduced. We have to notice that happiness is our ultimate purpose, economy and industry are intermediate, and natural resources support the all from the basis.
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    Evaluation on Contribution of Steel Products to Environmental Improvement from Life Cycle Assessment Perspectives
    WANG Wei-han1 (王伟晗), LIU Tao2 (刘涛), LIU Ying-hao2 (刘颖昊), GUO Shui-hua2 (郭水华)
    2012, 17 (3):  370.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1289-6
    Abstract ( 1062 )  
    High functionality given to steel products results in incremental environment loads at the steelmaking stage. However, at the stage of utilization, high-functional steel products prove more environment friendly than their conventional counterparts in many cases. Therefore, evaluation on contribution of steel products to environmental improvement requires an integrated approach that considers the product over its entire life cycle — life cycle assessment (LCA). This paper discusses the relationship between the improvement of steel products performance and environmental impact from the entire life cycle perspectives. The LCA method to calculate and assess contribution of high-functional steel products during the life cycle to environmental improvement is explained. Two case studies of Baoshan Iron & Steel Co., Ltd. (Baosteel for short) are given to show that LCA is a scientific and systematic method for eco-materials evaluation or eco-design: 1)in a power transformer, using silicon steel B30P110 to replace B30G130 can reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the region of 15.1% over the life cycle of the power transformer; 2)tinplate steel of Baosteel for two-piece steel cans experienced six times thickness reduction from 0.280 to 0.225mm, which results in 14.5% emission reduction over the life cycle of two-piece steel cans. It is a systematic and scientific method for evaluating on products environmental performance from life cycle perspective.
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    Preparation of Benzene Adsorption Materials Using Waste Activated Alumina
    PAN Jin-feng (潘金凤), WU Ren-ping (吴任平), CHEN Xiao-juan (陈小娟)
    2012, 17 (3):  373-376.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1290-0
    Abstract ( 982 )  
    A new type of benzene adsorption material was prepared by using the airtight heat treatment method. This method can directly transform the organic impurities of the activated alumina waste into carbon with adsorption capability. The microstructure and carbon content of materials were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET (Brunauer Emmett Teller) surface area analysis and elemental analysis. The influences of heat treatment temperature on the properties of the composite materials were discussed. The benzene adsorption capability of the material was investigated. The experimental results show that the optimal heat treatment process condition is airtight heating at 400℃ for 2 h. The resulting sample has carbon mass fraction of 3.57%, specific surface area of 234.70m2/g, pore volume of 0.41m3/g, and average pore size of 6.59 nm. The samples show excellent benzene adsorption capability with an adsorption rate of 21.80%.
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    Certification Criteria in Type I Ecolabelling Related to Metals for Sustainable Materials Management
    ICHIRO Daigo1, KENICHI Nakajima2, TAKASHI Fujisaki3
    2012, 17 (3):  377-379.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1291-z
    Abstract ( 812 )  
    A sustainable materials management for metals should be achieved to conserve resources of metal minerals. For the sustainable materials management, material flows through the whole life cycle of materials have been recognized by material flow analysis (MFA) studies. Former MFA studies pointed out that cyclic use of metals could be enhanced not only by increasing quantity of recovered scrap but also by upgrading quality of the scrap. In general, the quality is degraded by contaminants which commingle at disassembling processes. The mixture of contaminants depends on usage of materials in products. Here, Type I ecolabelling has a potential to convey messages for avoiding mixture of contaminants to the producers of finished products. In this study, on the basis of a survey on existing certification criteria related to metals in the world, a general concept of certification criteria on sustainable materials management for metals in Type I ecolabelling system is proposed. Finally, we propose six criteria in the form of certification criteria in Type I ecolabelling system.
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    Application of Waste Bamboo Materials on Produced Eco-brick
    CHIEN Chua-Chil1 (简全基), LU Yue-Shih1 (卢月诗), LIOU Yan-Jia2 (刘昱嘉)
    2012, 17 (3):  380-384.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1292-y
    Abstract ( 885 )  
    With regard to the optimization test of mixing ratio between waste bamboo and cement, the single axial compression strength of the second set (5 : 95) is the highest. By increasing the mixing ratio to 10 : 90 and complying with Chinese national standard (CNS) required strength for water permeable bricks. In the test for optimizing the mixing ratio of waste bamboo-charcoal and cement, the second set of single-axial compression strengths is the highest. Further increasing the ratio to 40 : 60, the single-axial compression strength also can be up to 9.212MPa, and complying with CNS requir 7.840MPa for the strength of decoration bricks. In the investigation of the optimization ratio for the mixture ratio of 2 (hammered fine coal debris) :1 (fly-ash): 1 (cement) after a 28-day aging, and the resultant strength of 39.788 MPa are observed for each set, and complying with the strength required by CNS for high-pressure brick C-grade. By means of natural strengthen agents can increase the strength, it is concluded that the strengthen agents can significantly increase the strength after aging for 6 to 28 days. For competitive strategy for a future market, it should be focused on the creation of differentiation for product and technology, the increase of service and features, as well as the branding effect to become a price-leader.
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