Table of Content

    30 August 2012, Volume 17 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Experimental Study on Mechanical Behavior of Box-Brace to Box-Column Foot Joints
    WANG Zhao-qiang (王兆强), ZHAO Jin-cheng (赵金城), GONG Jing-hai (龚景海)
    2012, 17 (4):  385-390.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1296-7
    Abstract ( 1056 )  
    This paper presents results of three tests carried out to study the mechanical behavior of foot joints used in the tower boiler steel frame. Each foot joint consists of a box column and a box brace. These three specimens have different connection types or different details of stiffeners. The tests are carried out by using the large multi-function structural experiment system WAW-1000J. The load-displacement curves and the strain distribution are measured during the tests. The mechanical behavior of foot joints under adverse load cases is analyzed. The safety of these three specimens under design load is assessed. The strength and deformation of different joints are compared. The results indicate that connection types or details of inner stiffeners have effects on strength and failure mode and that the specimen with end-plate connection can optimize the strain distribution along the height of brace web and can change the force transfer mechanism between column and brace. In addition, a finite element model of the specimen is conducted and numerical results generally agree well with the test results. The work in this paper provides a base for further analysis on the performance of joint used in the tower boiler steel frames.
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    Effects of Length and Location of Steel Corrosion on the Behavior and Load Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Columns
    WANG Xiao-hui1 (王小惠), LIU Xi-la1 (刘西拉), Deng Bao-ru2 (邓宝如)
    2012, 17 (4):  391-400.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1297-6
    Abstract ( 1183 )  
    The effects of length and location of the steel corrosion on the structural behavior and load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns have been investigated. Results of the accelerated corrosion process and eccentric load test are presented in detail. Effects of the location of the partial length, the corrosion level within partial length and the asymmetrical deterioration of the concrete section on the mechanical behavior and load capacity of corroded RC columns are discussed. It is found that the mechanical behavior and load carrying capacity of corroded RC columns are simultaneously affected by the above mentioned factors. For the corroded RC columns with large eccentricity, a higher corrosion level in the tensile corroded length and a greater asymmetrical deterioration of the concrete section can result in less ductile behavior and larger load reduction of the column; while for the corroded RC columns with small eccentricity, the less ductile behavior and the larger load reduction of the column may result from the higher corrosion level in the compressive corroded length and the greater asymmetrical deterioration of the concrete section.
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    Simulation of Excess Pore Water Pressure During Deep Soil Mixing Columns Installing
    ZHANG Jun-feng (张俊峰), CHEN Jin-jian (陈锦剑), WANG Jian-hua (王建华)
    2012, 17 (4):  401-407.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1298-5
    Abstract ( 1475 )  
    Most of current studies of deep soil mixing (DSM) methods are focused on the soil strength improvement and soil treatment effectiveness. But the DSM installation leads to excess pore water pressure and soil disturbance, which will bring great harm to adjacent structures, such as shell tunnels and historic buildings. The procedure of excess pore water pressure buildup while large number DSM columns are installed is complicated. In order to find methods to predict and simulate the excess pore water pressure during DSM column installation, the complicated dissipation and buildup of excess pore water pressure through in-situ test are studied in this paper. In-situ test was conducted in soft clay near the Huangpu River in Shanghai. The pore water pressure was investigated by an automatic monitoring system. Test results indicate that the excess pore water pressure induced by one DSM column installation is composed of the compaction pressure and the reversing pressure. The empirical equations of excess pore water pressure dissipation and buildup were built by mathematical fitting methods. A compound method is proposed to simulate the excess pore water pressure due to DSM installation. Using this method to predict the excess pore water pressure in the situ test, results show a well agreement between the prediction and the measurements.
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    Experimental Study of the Shear Capacity of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer Reinforced Concrete Beam with Circular Cross Section
    SHI Xiao-quan (师晓权), ZHANG Zhi-qiang (张志强), LI Zhi-ye (李志业)
    2012, 17 (4):  408-414.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1299-4
    Abstract ( 1234 )  
    In order to research the shear behavior of glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) reinforced concrete beam with circular cross section, based on the test results of 36 concrete beams subjected to four-point loading up to failure, the shear capacity and mechanical properties of deformation were analyzed comparatively between GFRP reinforced concrete (GFRP-RC) beams and steel reinforced concrete (steel-RC) beams. Furthermore, influencing factors of shear capacity of GFRP-RC beam with circular cross section were also investigated. The test results indicate that the failure modes of GFRP-RC and steel-RC beams are the same, but the crack patterns are slightly different. And, the shear capacity of GFRP-RC beam firstly increases with the reduction of shear span ratio, and then decreases. In addition, it was found that the influencing coefficient of GFRP on concrete increases with shear span ratio reducing.
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    Method of a New Iteration Scheme Combined with Kriging Model for Structural Reliability Evaluation
    YANG Jie1,2 (杨杰), HUANG Yi1,2(黄一), ZHANG Qi1,2 (张崎), ZHAO De-you1 (赵德有)
    2012, 17 (4):  415.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1300-2
    Abstract ( 1145 )  
    The first order reliability method (FORM) is widely adopted for structural reliability evaluation due to its numerical efficiency. Concerning the issue of FORM often failing to converge when the limit state function (LSF) behaves high nonlinearity, a new iteration scheme called “rotated gradient algorithm (RGA)” is proposed and combined with Kriging model to evaluate the reliability of implicit performance function. In this paper, the Kriging model is applied to approximate the real LSF first. Then the scheme of RGA, constructed in terms of gradient information of two adjacent design points obtained during the process of calculation, is used to calculate the reliability index. Numerical examples show the validity in convergence and accuracy of the proposed method for arbitrary nonlinear performance function.
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    Method to Calculate Resistance of High-Speed Displacement Ship Taking the Effect of Dynamic Sinkage and Trim and Fluid Viscosity into Account
    YAO Chao-bang (姚朝帮), DONG Wen-cai (董文才)
    2012, 17 (4):  421-426.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1301-1
    Abstract ( 1739 )  
    A method is presented to calculate the resistance of a high-speed displacement ship taking the effect of sinkage and trim and viscosity of fluid into account. A free surface flow field is evaluated by solving Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with volume of fluid (VoF) method. The sinkage and trim are computed by equating the vertical force and pitching moment to the hydrostatic restoring force and moment. The software Fluent, Maxsurf and MATLAB are used to implement this method. With dynamic mesh being used, the position of a ship is updated by the motion of “ship plus boundary layer” grid zone. The hull factors are introduced for fast calculating the running attitude of a ship. The method has been applied to the ship model INSEAN2340 for different Froude numbers and is found to be efficient for evaluating the flow field, resistance, sinkage and trim.
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    Shafting Alignment Based on Hydrodynamics Simulation Under Larger Rudder Corner Conditions
    YANG Yong (杨勇), MA Jie (马捷), TANG Wen-yong (唐文勇) CHE Chi-dong (车驰东), ZHANG Gui-chen (张桂臣)
    2012, 17 (4):  427-435.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1263-3
    Abstract ( 1235 )  
    With the rudder angles getting larger and larger, the moment and force on propeller shafts, which are caused by complex flowing field, become more and more. They influence the shafting alignment greatly. Stress analysis of propeller shafts has been done under increasing rudder corner conditions with complex hydrodynamics simulation for a great domestic liquified natural gas (LNG) vessel, which is with dual propulsion systems. The improved three-moment equation is adopted in the process of dual propulsive shafting alignment. The calculated results show that the propeller hydrodynamic characteristics, which affect dual propulsive shafting alignment greatly, must be considered under large rudder angle conditions. Shafting accidents of Korean LNG vessels are interpreted reasonably. At the same time, salutary lessons and references are afforded to the marine multi-propulsion shafting alignment in the future.
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    Influences on the Spatial Directivity of Acoustic Vector Sensor by Finite Cylinder Baffle and Future Prospects About Eliminating the Effects
    JI Jian-fei (嵇建飞), LIANG Guo-long (梁国龙), PANG Fu-bin (庞福斌), ZHANG Guang-pu (张光普)
    2012, 17 (4):  436-446.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1302-0
    Abstract ( 1264 )  
    The directivity of acoustic vector sensor can be distorted by the sound diffraction wave of baffle. According to Helmholtz integral equation, the directivity of acoustic vector sensor under the condition of finite cylinder baffle is calculated by using boundary element method (BEM). Considering the problem of nearly singular integrals of BEM, the exponent parts of fundamental solutions are expanded in trigonometric functions. The singular and the nonsingular parts are separated: the nonsingular parts are calculated by Gaussian integral method; the singular parts are regularized by subsection integral method. Then the surface integrals are reduced into line integrals along the elements’ contour which can be calculated by Gaussian integral method. The sound diffraction field of a plane wave under the condition of finite cylinder baffle at different frequencies and incident angles is calculated, and the characteristics of directivity of pressure and vibration velocity at different frequencies are analyzed. The experimental data are treated and the errors between the experimental and theoretical results are analyzed. Finally, according to the research results about the influences on the directivity of acoustic vector sensor by baffle at present, some future prospects about eliminating the effects of sound diffraction field by baffle are presented.
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    Fluctuation Velocity Correlation Closure Model for Dense Gas-Particle Turbulent Flow
    ZENG Zhuo-xiong (曾卓雄), CHEN Chao-jie (陈超杰)
    2012, 17 (4):  447-451.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1303-z
    Abstract ( 1127 )  
    Turbulence model of kg-εg-kp-εp-kpg-θ is proposed. In the model, the two-phase velocity correlation turbulent kinetic energy kpg is modeled by transport equation. To close this turbulence model, algebraic expressions of two-phase Reynolds stresses and two-phase velocity correlation variable are established by considering both gas-particle interaction and anisotropy. This turbulence model is used to simulate dense gas-particle flow in a riser and in a downer. The predicted results show the core-annulus flow structure observed in the riser and the skin effect of particle concentration in the downer. The present model gives simulation results in much better agreement with the experimental results than those obtained by kg-εg-kp-εp-θ model which is simply closed using a semi-empirical dimensional analysis.
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    Multiple Welding Seam Video Transmission and Monitoring of Welding Robot in Local Area Network
    MA Guo-hong (马国红), DU Bao-zhou (杜保舟), XIE Fen (谢芬)
    2012, 17 (4):  452-455.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1304-y
    Abstract ( 1298 )  
    A method of transmission and monitoring in local area network (LAN) for the welding seam video information of binocular vision welding robot is proposed. This paper uses MPEG-4 video CODEC functions of DivX, video for Windows (VFW) video capture technology, multi-threaded network communication idea and WinSock Socket in Visual C++ 6.0. In the end, client/server (C/S) communication model based on TCP/IP protocol has been developed. Experimental results show that the method can achieve the multiple welding seam video’s real-time transmission in LAN. Moreover, the Canny operator is used to realize the edge feature extraction of the seam image which is captured by the client, so that the edge of the seam extracted is continuous and clear.
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    Influence of High Frequency Vibration on Deep Drawing Process of AZ31 Sheet at Room Temperature
    WEN Tong (温彤), GAO Rui (郜瑞), CHEN Xia (陈霞)
    2012, 17 (4):  456-460.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1305-x
    Abstract ( 1299 )  
    Quasi-ultrasonic vibration with a frequency of 15 kHz and a maximum output of 2 kW was imposed on the deep drawing process of AZ31 magnesium alloy sheet at room temperature, in order to reveal the effect of high frequency vibration on deformation behavior of AZ31 during the process. From the drawn results and the observation of the microstructure within the large deformation area, high frequency vibration has a great influence on the formability, the forming load and the failure mode of AZ31 sheet during the deep drawing process; the influence is a comprehensive result of so-called “volume effect” and “surface effect”, and relies on the vibrating amplitude. Total forming load decreased significantly as soon as the vibration superimposed. According to the tensile test results of AZ31 bars under ultrasonic vibration, the formability of AZ31 sheet increases firstly with the increase of stimulating energy, then decreases and finally becomes brittle. Under the combined influence of “surface effect” and the “softening” in the “volume effect” near the relative low amplitude of 25%A in the experiment (A is the maximum amplitude), the formability of AZ31 reaches the largest value, and the samples possess the same distribution trend of cracks as those added with lubricating oil. With the increase of excitation energy, the “volume effect” gradually becomes apparent, and finally the “hardening” of the “volume effect” occupies a dominant position.
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    Formation of Nanometer Coherent Structures During Spinodal Decomposition and Ordering Coexistence Phase Transformation in Fe-24Al Alloys
    ZHAO Rong-da1,2 (赵荣达), ZHU Jing-chuan2 (朱景川), LAI Zhong-hong2 (来忠红), LIU Yong2 (刘勇)
    2012, 17 (4):  461-464.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1306-9
    Abstract ( 1180 )  
    The nanometer coherent structure evolution of spinodal decomposition and ordering coexistence phase transformation in Fe-24Al alloys is investigated by the microscopic phase field kinetic model. The results show that the concentration and long-range order parameters all continuously change towards to their equilibrium values during phase transformation. With the increase of elastic interaction energy, the anisotropy along [01] or [10] elastic soft direction is more obvious and the time reaching equilibrium state is also shortened. According to the results, the formation of nanometer coherent structures during phase transformation is composed of the initial decreasing stage of order degree stage, the incubation stage, the continuous increasing stage of concentration order parameter and long-range order parameter, and the later stable stage. The spinodal decomposition and ordering is interaction; the initial ordering stage is a necessary condition of the coexistence phase transformation. The nanometer coherent structures are not found to grow during the whole phase transformation. The simulation results are in accordance with the results in experiment obtained by the aging treatment in Fe-24Al alloys.
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    Research and Application of Pre-bending Automatic Control Models of 100 m Rail
    BAO Xi-rong1 (包喜荣), LIU Yu-yan1 (刘宇雁), LI Ge1 (李革), CHEN Lin1 (陈林) WANG Jian-guo1 (王建国), WU Zhang-zhong2 (吴章忠), TIAN Zhong-liang2 (田仲良)
    2012, 17 (4):  465-469.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1307-8
    Abstract ( 1050 )  
    Repeated bending occurs toward the direction of rail head and rail base during the cooling which can lead to significant bending deformation and residual stress after cooling. The longer the rail is, the more obvious this phenomenon is. In addition to cooling function, a kind of cooling bed with a pre-bending process is used in order to solve this problem on 100m rail. The synchronous movements on this cooling bed can be realized by the automatic control system after establishing the mathematical model of bending deformation after rolling. The rail is reversely bent toward the rail base before cooling according to the pre-bending control of the pre-bending curve and is straight after cooling, which can realize the control of the residual stress after pre-bending and straightening. The straightening residual stress is significantly reduced after the pre-bending.
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    Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of Silver Containing Ni-Based Composite-Steel Tribo-Pair
    RAJNESH Tyagi1,2, XIONG Dang-sheng1 (熊党生), LI Jian-liang1 (李建亮), DAI Ji-hui1 (戴基卉)
    2012, 17 (4):  470-474.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-010-1085-0
    Abstract ( 1324 )  
    Ni-based self lubricating composites containing four different amounts of silver were prepared by powder metallurgy (PM) route. The room temperature friction and wear behavior was investigated by carrying out dry sliding experiments against bearing steel using a ring-on-disk configuration. Tests were conducted at a constant load of 100N and different sliding speeds of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m/s to analyze the effect of both the speed and the silver content on the wear behavior of the tribo-pair. The friction coefficient and the wear rate of the composites were found to decrease with increasing both the sliding speed and the silver content. The wear rate of the counterface was observed to be a little higher when it was siding against the composite having silver in comparison to that without any silver. However, the overall wear rate of the tribo-pair was found to decrease with increasing sliding speed and silver content.
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    Establishment of Particular Methods in Casting Simulation
    CHEN Meng1 (陈萌), YANG Jian-ming2 (杨剑鸣), YANG Yi-tao1 (杨弋涛)
    2012, 17 (4):  475-478.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1308-7
    Abstract ( 1132 )  
    Casting simulation tool ADSTEFAN is useful to design casting technology of complicated iron castings. Based on the function of solidification analysis, special methods were taken to carry out the prediction and optimization of shake-out timing for large sized iron castings. It has been proved that these analyses are effective to iron casting production. During the research of cast iron semi-solid process, to predict and control the influence of inclined cooling plate on flow and heat transmission of molten iron, the basis of analysis model has been built in this study. Flow field simulation considering temperature field was carried out for further research and satisfied with the practical production.
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    Thermal Flow Simulation of Twin-Roll Casting Magnesium Alloy
    HU Xiao-dong (胡小东), JU Dong-ying (巨东英), ZHAO Hong-yang (赵红阳)
    2012, 17 (4):  479-483.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1309-6
    Abstract ( 1621 )  
    In order to better understand twin-roll casting process, a 3D finite element method (FEM) simulation was carried out, based on the conditions of the pilot vertical twin-roll caster, to study the thermal flow and solidification behavior in the twin-roll casting process. The simulation results show that non-uniform temperature and velocity distribution near the side dam region are the main reason for causing non-uniform solidification and non-uniform deformation along the cast sheet width. Therefore, it is necessary to preheat the side dams or improve the design of nozzle to compensate the effect of side dams on the casting process. High quality magnesium sheets have been cast after improved the casting devices.
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    Modified QUICK Schemes for 3D Advection-Diffusion Equation of Pollutants on Unstructured Grids
    XING Ling-hang1 (刑领航), YAN Ming2 (严明), HUANG Guo-bing1 (黄国兵), LI Fei3 (李飞), TANG Wen-jian4 (唐文坚)
    2012, 17 (4):  484-489.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1310-0
    Abstract ( 1405 )  
    In the framework of finite volume method (FVM), two modified schemes of quadratic upstream interpolation for convective kinematics (QUICK), namely quasi-QUICK (Q-QUICK) and normal quasi-QUICK (NQ-QUICK), for improving the precision of convective flux approximation are verified in 3D unsteady advectiondiffusion equation of pollutants on unstructured grids. The constructed auxiliary nodes for Q-QUICK or NQQUICK are composed of two neighboring nodes plus the next upwind node; the later node is generated from intersection of the line of current neighboring nodes and their corresponding interfaces. The numerical results show that Q-QUICK and NQ-QUICK overwhelm central differencing scheme (CDS) in computational accuracy and behave similar numerical stability to upwind difference scheme (UDS), hybrid differencing scheme (HDS) and power difference scheme (PDS) after applying the deferred correction method. Their corresponding CPU time is approximately equivalent to that of traditional difference schemes. In addition, their abilities for adapting high grid deformation are robust. It is so promising to apply the suggested schemes to simulate pollutant transportation on arbitrary 3D natural boundary in the hydraulic or environmental engineering.
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    Investigation on Mechanism of the Improvement in Tribological Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polytetrafluoroethylene Composites by Surface Treatment
    SHANGGUAN Qian-qian1,2 (上官倩芡), CHENG Xian-hua1 (程先华)
    2012, 17 (4):  490-493.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-010-1083-2
    Abstract ( 1206 )  
    Tribological properties of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) composites filled with differently surface treated carbon fibers (CF), sliding against GCr15 steel under dry sliding conditions, were investigated on a block-on-ring M-2000 tribometer. Experimental results reveal that rare earths (RE) surface treatment reduces the friction and wear of CF-reinforced PTFE (CF/PTFE) composites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigation of worn surfaces of CF/PTFE composites shows that cracks or pores are visible on the worn surfaces of untreated and air-oxidated composite, while no crack and very few pores present on the worn surface of REtreated composite. The fiber-friction-angling effect makes carbon fibers angled and oriented along the frictional shearing force, and finally parallel to the friction surface, which makes interfacial adhesion become a key factor to tribological properties of CF/PTFE composite. With strong interfacial adhesion between carbon fiber and PTFE after RE surface treatment, carbon fibers are not easily detachable from the PTFE matrix in the process of fiber-friction-angling, which prevents the rubbing-off of PTFE, and accordingly improves the friction and wear properties of the composite.
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    Web-Based Biomedical Literature Mining
    AN Jian-fu1,4 (安建福), XUE Hui-ping2 (薛惠平), CHEN ying1 (陈瑛), WU Jian-guo3 (吴建国), ZHANG Lu1 (章鲁)
    2012, 17 (4):  494-499.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1311-z
    Abstract ( 1217 )  
    With an upsurge in biomedical literature, using data-mining method to search new knowledge from literature has drawing more attention of scholars. In this study, taking the mining of non-coding gene literature from the network database of PubMed as an example, we first preprocessed the abstract data, next applied the term occurrence frequency (TF) and inverse document frequency (IDF) (TF-IDF) method to select features, and then established a biomedical literature data-mining model based on Bayesian algorithm. Finally, we assessed the model through area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, precision rate and recall rate. When 1 000 features are selected, AUC, specificity, sensitivity, accuracy rate, precision rate and recall rate are 0.868 3, 84.63%, 89.02%, 86.83%, 89.02% and 98.14%, respectively. These results indicate that our method can identify the targeted literature related to a particular topic effectively.
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    Inhibitive Effect of Proanthocyanidins on Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in A549 Cells Induced by Cytokine Interleukin-1 Beta
    LU Ting-ting1 (卢婷婷), LIANG Tong2 (梁统), ZHAO Yu-cong1 (赵玉丛), ZHOU Ke-yuan2 (周克元)
    2012, 17 (4):  500-504.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1312-y
    Abstract ( 1100 )  
    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an important enzyme, plays a pathological role in diseases, which can be inhibited by proanthocyanidins (PCs) effectively. In this paper, we investigated the inhibitive mechanism of COX-2 performed by PCs. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify the mRNA expression level of COX-2 in A549 cell, which was induced by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). The pGL3 luciferase reporter vector containing the COX-2 gene promoter fragment (pGL3/COX-2p) was transfected into A549 cell induced by IL-1β, the interference on the COX-2 promoter activity from PCs was analyzed using a dualluciferase reporter assay, and the expressions of the nuclear factor κB composed of subunit p65 (NF-κB/p65) and the inhibitor-κB (I-κB) were measured by the Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. The results exhibited that PCs not only inhibited the transcript of COX-2 mRNA and the COX-2 promoter activity, but also suppressed the nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65 protein and the degradation of I-κB protein. Key words: cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)| proanthocyanidins (PCs)| nuclear factor κB/p65 (NF-κB/p65)| inhibitor-κB (I-κB)
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    Effectiveness of Different Orthoses on Joint Moments in Patients with Early Knee Osteoarthritis: Lateral Wedge Versus Valgus Knee Bracing
    ZHANG Min (张旻), QU Pei-yu (瞿佩育), FENG Mei-lan (冯美兰), JIANG Lan (江澜), SHEN Xiao-yan (沈晓艳), MA Yan-hong (马燕红), BAI Yue-hong (白跃宏)
    2012, 17 (4):  505-510.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1313-x
    Abstract ( 1324 )  
    The purpose of the study was to test the biomechanical differences between a lateral wedge and a valgus knee bracing on the knee joint moment during walking in patients with early stage of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA). We conducted a crossover randomized design to compare gait parameters of 32 patients (with early stage medial compartment knee OA) in three different conditions during walking: with a custom-made lateral wedge of 5? (in standard shoes), with a valgus knee bracing (in standard shoes), and with control condition (in standard shoes). Both two-orthose conditions showed decreased loading patterns (knee adduction moment and knee adduction angular impulse) on the knee joint in dynamic condition (statistic probability P < 0.05). The decreased loading on OA knee in wedge condition was associated with a laterally shifted location of centre of pressure and increased ankle valgus degree and moment at the same foot (P <0.05). It was not found significant differences in loading of the knee between these two-orthose conditions. These results indicated that, under dynamic condition, patients wearing lateral wedge and valgus knee bracing showed changes of moments on knee joints. Lateral wedge was as effective as valgus knee bracing in the treatment of early stage of knee OA.
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    Erratum to: Cork and Sustainability: Discussing the Sustainable Use of the Material from a Design Perspective
    PEREIRA Ana Carina1,2, BREZET Han1, PEREIRA Helena2, VOGTLANDER Joost1
    2012, 17 (4):  511-511.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1314-9
    Abstract ( 1008 )  
    The original version of this article unfortunately contained several mistakes. The corrected items are given below. (1) The authors’ names should be: PEREIRA Ana Carina, BREZET Han, PEREIRA Helena, VOGTL¨ANDER Joost. (2) In the following locations, “is application” should be “are applications”: the second sentence in the first paragraph in Section 0; the first sentence in the third paragraph in Section 1. (3) In the last sentence of the third paragraph in Subsection 2.1, “after 9-year cycle” should be “after a 9-year cycle”. (4) In the end of Refs. [7, 10, 15, 20, 24], “(in Portuguese)” should be added. The online version of the original article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12204-012-1287-8.
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    Erratum to: Certification Criteria in Type I Ecolabelling Related to Metals for Sustainable Materials Management
    DAIGO Ichiro1, NAKAJIMA Kenichi2, FUJISAKI Takashi3
    2012, 17 (4):  512-512.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1315-8
    Abstract ( 988 )  
    The authors’ names should be: DAIGO Ichiro, NAKAJIMA Kenichi, FUJISAKI Takashi. The online version of the original article can be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12204-012-1291-z.
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