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    15 January 2020, Volume 25 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Reliability Modelling and Prediction Method for Phase Change Memory Using Optimal Pulse Conditions
    YAN Shuai (闫帅), CAI Daolin (蔡道林), CHEN Yifeng (陈一峰), XUE Yuan (薛媛), LIU Yuanguang (刘源广), WU Lei (吴磊), SONG Zhitang (宋志棠)
    2020, 25 (1):  1-9.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-020-2153-8
    Abstract ( 316 )   PDF (1627KB) ( 57 )  
    Phase change memory (PCM) has reached the level of mass production. The first step in mass production is determining the proper pulse conditions of high-resistance (HR) and low-resistance (LR) states to realize the best performance of PCM chips on the basis of longer endurance characteristics. However, due to the neglect of each of the relations as well as the square term of each relationship for pulse conditions, the standard screening method for pulse conditions cannot accurately determine the optimal pulse conditions. A new statistical prediction method based on regression analysis is presented in this work. The method can model and predict the optimal pulse conditions of PCM chips on the basis of longer endurance characteristics. In the method, the parameter estimates, model equations and surface plot are generated by the least-mean-square (LMS) method for the regression analysis; the prediction model is established by monitoring the distributions of the resistance values collected from a 4 Kbit block of the 4 Mbit PCM test chips in 40 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process.
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    Research on Time-Domain Transfer Impedance Measurement Technology for High Frequency Current Transformers in Partial Discharge Detection of Cables
    SONG Simeng (宋思蒙), CHEN Xiaoxin (陈孝信), QIAN Yong (钱勇), WANG Hui (王辉), ZHANG Yue (张悦), SHENG Gehao (盛戈皞), JIANG Xiuchen (江秀臣)
    2020, 25 (1):  10-17.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-020-2154-7
    Abstract ( 299 )   PDF (644KB) ( 45 )  
    We focus on the high frequency current method which is widely applied in the partial discharge (PD) detection of cables. Aiming at guaranteeing the accuracy of this method, we study an innovative time-domain technology for e?ectively measuring the transfer impedance of the high frequency current transformers (HFCTs). The proposed technology called pulse injection method obtains the system response under the excitation of the wide-band instantaneous pulse signal. Firstly, by studying the working principle of HFCTs, we summarize that the bandwidth of the selected signal acquisition device should be at least 100MHz to ensure measurement accuracy. Secondly, Gauss pulse and square wave pulse are generated to determine the effects of different sources. The measurement results indicate that Gauss pulse is more suitable for pulse injection method, and the rise time should be under 10 ns to improve the starting frequency of oscillation distortion. Finally, the transfer impedance curves of five types of HFCTs are acquired by both pulse injection and traditional point-frequency methods. The measurement results show a remarkable consistency between two methods. However, pulse injection method requires the simpler operation and has a higher resolution, obviously improving the measurement e±ciency and better displaying the details of the transfer impedance curves.
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    Information Extraction of Bionic Camera-Based Polarization Navigation Patterns Under Noisy Weather Conditions
    AHSAN Muhammad, CAI Yunze (蔡云泽), ZHANG Weidong (张卫东)
    2020, 25 (1):  18-26.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-020-2155-6
    Abstract ( 310 )   PDF (3185KB) ( 98 )  
    Light polarization is the phenomenon that describes the oscillations and orientations of the light waves. Polarized light is a source of substantial cue for navigation in many marine and land-dwelling animals. This work investigates the challenges of obtaining information regarding polarization under various conditions by observing the phenomenology of the ommatidium in many insects. Noisy conditions can be because of haze or the presence of clouds in the atmosphere. Aerosol molecules are greater in volume and scale in such atmospheric conditions. When sunlight crosses through these molecules of aerosol, its polarization information is distorted. The distorted pattern has a little or no information on neutral points of light polarization. On the basis of the relationship between wavelength of sunlight and polarization, we propose a novel hue based color mixing (HBCM) model to calculate the polarization information and orientation information more accurately and robustly. This method improves the symmetries of polarization patterns and eliminates the effect of noises. Symmetries of polarization patterns are compared with red, green and blue (RGB) spectrum and these differences are quantified and compared especially under high noisy weather conditions.
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    Analysis of Weighted Fractional Fourier Transform Based Hybrid Carrier Signal Characteristics
    WANG Xiaolu (王晓鲁), MEI lin (梅林), WANG Zhenduo (王震铎), SHA Xuejun1(沙学军)
    2020, 25 (1):  27-36.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-020-2156-5
    Abstract ( 288 )   PDF (514KB) ( 42 )  
    Recently, a weighted fractional Fourier transform (WFRFT) based hybrid carrier (HC) system has been proposed, which can converge single-carrier (SC) and multi-carrier (MC) systems. The cost and power dissipation of analog components often dominate in practical HC systems. Therefore, in this paper, we analyze the baseband HC signal characteristics, including average signal power, power spectral density (PSD), probability density function (PDF), peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), and complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF), using a continuous-time HC signal approximation method. Through theoretical analysis and simulation validation, it is proved that the approximation method does not change the average signal power, bandwidth and out-of-band emission (OOBE). The theoretical PDF expression of HC signal with the approximation method is then proposed. Furthermore, the PDF can also explain why the PAPR of baseband continuous-time HC signal is higher than that of discrete-time HC signal. The PAPR performance and the power amplifier (PA) efficiency of HC systems in different conditions are analyzed. Through the PDF analysis of HC signal envelope and the numerical computations of PAPR, it is shown that the approximation method can offer a precise characteristic description for HC signal, which can help to improve the system PAPR performance and the PA efficiency.
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    A Privacy-Preserving Aggregation and Authentication Scheme Towards Mobile Users in Smart Grid
    GUO Fei (郭非), CAO Zhenfu (曹珍富), LIU Zhusen (刘竹森), CAO Nanyuan (曹楠源)
    2020, 25 (1):  37-43.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2137-8
    Abstract ( 342 )   PDF (576KB) ( 46 )  
    With the enormous development of imformation and communication technology, more concerns are focused to achieve secure and reliable smart grids as the social infrastructure, especially in the explosion era of mobile devices. In this paper, we propose an efficient scheme to satisfy the outdoor electrical demand of mobile customers. Our scheme protects the privacy and integrity of users' electricity consumption data. Technically, we encrypt users' electricity consumption data by a chosen-plaintext-attack (CPA) secure public key encryption (PKE) scheme and aggregate ciphertexts by the aggregator (an untrusted third party). In the scheme, internal and external adversaries cannot obtain the electricity consumption data. Additionally, we require users to provide authentication and commitment of consumption data that can track who modifies the data, which protects the integrity of users' electricity consumption data.
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    Implementation of Simplified Fractional-Order PID Controller Based on Modified Oustaloup's Recursive Filter
    LI Jie (李杰), LIU Yongzhi (刘勇智), SHAN Chenglong (鄯成龙), DAI Cong (戴聪)
    2020, 25 (1):  44-50.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2139-6
    Abstract ( 358 )   PDF (310KB) ( 35 )  
    The aim of this paper is to simplify the design of fractional-order PID controllers. Because the analyt- ical expressions and operations of fractional-order systems are complex, numerical approximation tool is needed for the simulation analysis and engineering practice of fractional-order control systems. The key to numerical approximation tool is the exact approximation of the fractional calculus operator. A commonly used method is to approximate the fractional calculus operator with an improved Oustaloup's recursive filter. Based on the modified Oustaloup's recursive filter, a mathematical simplification method is proposed in this paper, and a sim- plified fractional-order PID controller (SFOC) is designed. The controller parameters are tuned by using genetic algorithm (GA). Effectiveness of the proposed control scheme is verified by simulation. The performance of SFOC has been compared with that of the integer-order PID controller and conventional fractional-order PID controller (CFOC). It is observed that SFOC requires smaller effort as compared with its integer and conventional fractional counterpart to achieve the same system performance.
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    Collaborative Defense with Multiple USVs and UAVs Based on Swarm Intelligence
    WU Xing (武星), LIU Yuan (刘远), XIE Shaorong (谢少荣), GUO Yike (郭毅可)
    2020, 25 (1):  51-56.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2142-y
    Abstract ( 333 )   PDF (468KB) ( 38 )  
    Modern defense systems are developing towards systematization, intellectualization and automation, which include the collaborative defense system on the sea between multiple unmanned surface vehicles (USVs) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAVs can fly in high altitude and collect marine environment information on patrolling. Furthermore, UAVs can plan defense paths for USVs to intercept intruders with full-assignment or reassignment strategies aiming at maximum overall beneˉts. Thus, we propose dynamic overlay reconnaissance algorithm based on genetic idea (GI-DORA) to solve the problem of multi-UAV multi-station reconnaissance. Moreover, we develop continuous particle swarm optimization based on obstacle dimension (OD-CPSO) to opti- mize defense path of USVs to intercept intruders. In addition, under the designed defense constraints, we propose dispersed particle swarm optimization based on mutation and crossover (MC-DPSO) and real-time batch assign- ment algorithm (RTBA) in emergency for formulating combat defense mission assignment strategy in di?erent scenarios. Finally, we illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed methods.
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    Reliability Analysis of Cloud Service-Based Applications Through SRGM and NMSPN
    XU Jiajun (许家俊), PEI Zhiyuan (裴志远), GUO Lin (郭琳), ZHANG Ruxia (张儒侠), HU Hualang (胡华浪), WANG Fei (王飞)
    2020, 25 (1):  57-64.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2151-x
    Abstract ( 280 )   PDF (298KB) ( 36 )  
    Cloud service-based applications are subject to reliability critical problem, as the reliability of the application relies on both the failed states and the probabilities of the failures. Classically, reliability analysis approaches are lack of estimating unknown failure rate and non-exponentially distributed failure times. We propose a new framework for analyzing the reliability. The method is mainly decomposed in four successive steps: a non-Makovian stochastic Petri net (NMSPN) model which describes the failure behavior of underlying applications, a software reliability growth model (SRGM) which estimates the failure data of each basic service, a reachability graph which discoveries all the failure sequences, and a computation procedure which computes the occurrences of non-exponential failures. We assess and validate our method by conducting experiment on an actual application. The results demonstrate that the method is competitive compared to the existing approaches for reliability analysis, while providing a better reliability. This result is helpful to the managers in optimizing the overall quality of the cloud service-based application.
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    Traffic Prediction Method for GEO Satellites Combining ARIMA Model and Grey Model
    ZHOU Jian (周剑), YANG Qidong (杨启东), ZHANG Xiaofei (张小飞), HAN Chong (韩崇), SUN Lijuan (孙力娟)
    2020, 25 (1):  65-69.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2152-9
    Abstract ( 284 )   PDF (254KB) ( 41 )  
    An accurate traffic prediction on various service is of great importance to the channel resource man- agement of geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites. Therefore, a traffic prediction method for GEO satellites combining autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model and grey model is proposed. First, the traffic prediction methods based on ARIMA model and grey model are introduced respectively. Second, a combined model is given, in which according to the results of the historical prediction of ARIMA model and grey model, those two models are combined with di?erent weights. Third, the combined model is applied to a multi-service access and the access probability of each kind of service is calculated based on the prediction results. Finally, the simulation experiments indicate that the combined model has better prediction stability and higher average prediction accuracy than either of the separated models. Moreover, the proposed access strategy based on the combined model performs better than other similar strategies.
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    Joint CTC-Attention End-to-End Speech Recognition with a Triangle Recurrent Neural Network Encoder
    ZHU Tao (朱涛), CHENG Chunling (程春玲)
    2020, 25 (1):  70-75.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2147-6
    Abstract ( 316 )   PDF (217KB) ( 34 )  
    Traditional speech recognition model based on deep neural network (DNN) and hidden Markov model (HMM) is a complex and multi-module system. In other words, optimization goals may di?er between modules in traditional model. Besides, additional language resources are required, such as pronunciation dictionary and language model. To eliminate the drawbacks of traditional model, we hereby propose an end-to-end speech recog- nition method, where connectionist temporal classiˉcation (CTC) and attention are integrated for decoding. In our model, the complex modules are replaced by a single deep network. Our model mainly consists of encoder and decoder. The encoder is constructed by bidirectional long short-term memory (BLSTM) with a triangular struc- ture for feature extraction. The decoder based on CTC-attention decoding utilizes advanced features extracted by shared encoder for training and decoding. The experimental results on the VoxForge dataset indicate that end-to-end method is superior to basic CTC and attention-based encoder-decoder decoding, and the character error rate (CER) is reduced to 12.9% without using any language model.
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    Robust Variational Bayesian Adaptive Cubature Kalman Filtering Algorithm for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping with Heavy-Tailed Noise
    ZHANG Zhuqing (张铸青), DONG Peng (董鹏), TUO Hongya (庹红娅), LIU Guangjun (刘光军), JIA He (贾鹤)
    2020, 25 (1):  76-87.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2146-7
    Abstract ( 307 )   PDF (1257KB) ( 33 )  
    Simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has been applied across a wide range of areas from robotics to automatic pilot. Most of the SLAM algorithms are based on the assumption that the noise is time- invariant Gaussian distribution. In some cases, this assumption no longer holds and the performance of the traditional SLAM algorithms declines. In this paper, we present a robust SLAM algorithm based on variational Bayes method by modelling the observation noise as inverse-Wishart distribution with "harmonic mean". Besides, cubature integration is utilized to solve the problem of nonlinear system. The proposed algorithm can e?ectively solve the problem of ˉltering divergence for traditional ˉltering algorithm when su?ering the time-variant obser- vation noise, especially for heavy-tailed noise. To validate the algorithm, we compare it with other traditional ˉltering algorithms. The results show the e?ectiveness of the algorithm.
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    Tensor-Based Joint Channel Estimation and Symbol Detection for AF MIMO Relay Networks
    LIN Heyun (林和昀), YUAN Chaowei (袁超伟), DU Jianhe (杜建和), HU Zhongwei (胡仲伟)
    2020, 25 (1):  88-96.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2077-3
    Abstract ( 296 )   PDF (323KB) ( 35 )  
    A study on the joint channel and symbol estimation issue is provided for two hop relay networks which employ the amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying approach. The encoding scheme at the source node introduces the time-domain spreading with a time-varying linear constellation precoding. Then, a set of amplifying factors matrices is utilized by the relays to amplify and forward the received data to the destination. The received signal at the destination can be constructed as a fourth-order tensor model, which is referred to as the nested parallel factor (PARAFAC) model. And then, we present a novel Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm based on this tensor model. The proposed method does not require complex signal processing at the relay, which e?ectively reduces the burden of relay. As a semi-blind method, which does not require the pilot signal, the proposed receiver can jointly recover the channels and information symbols. Moreover, the proposed semi-blind receiver is robust as it can work in different wireless channel scenarios. Simulations are conducted to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed semi-blind approach.
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    New Accuracy Evaluation Index for Track Fusion Algorithms
    LI Yuewu (李月武), HU Jianwang (胡建旺), JI Bing (吉兵), CHEN Zizhao (陈子兆)
    2020, 25 (1):  97-105.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2130-2
    Abstract ( 240 )   PDF (377KB) ( 32 )  
    When evaluating the track fusion algorithm, common accuracy indexes may fail to evaluate the fusion accuracy correctly when the state estimation and the real target cannot be one-to-one, and fail to effectively distin- guish the performance of the algorithm when the state estimation is similar. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a high-resolution evaluation index, which can evaluate the track fusion algorithm more accurately, reasonably and comprehensively. Firstly, the advantages and disadvantages of the optimal subpattern assignment(OSPA)distance as the accuracy index to evaluate the track fusion algorithm are analyzed. Then, its deficiencies are improved by using the Hellinger distance instead of the original Euclidean distance, and the distance is index transformed. Finally, a new evaluation index for track fusion algorithms is proposed, which is the OSPA distance based on Hellinger distance and index transformation. The simulation results show that the new index can not only cor- rectly evaluate the fusion precision, but also consider the state uncertainty, making that can evaluate the track fusion algorithm more sensitively, and e?ectively solves the sensitivity of the index to the cut-off parameter c through index transformation.
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    Approximate Approach to Deal with the Uncertainty in Integrated Production Scheduling and Maintenance Planning
    CUI Weiwei (崔维伟)
    2020, 25 (1):  106-117.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2086-2
    Abstract ( 210 )   PDF (317KB) ( 35 )  
    This paper deals with the integration problem between production scheduling and maintenance plan- ning in a single machine, where the impact of failure uncertainty is considered. The objective is to minimize the weighted sum of quality robustness and solution robustness, which is determined by the jobs' sequence, preventive maintenances' position and bu?er time in the schedule. Then, a three-stage algorithm is devised to solve the problem, where the gradient descent algorithm based on an effective surrogate measure is developed in the second stage. The numerical experiments show that the deviation of the approximate approach is very small, as compared with the exact solution obtained by CPLEX. The balance between quality robustness and solution robustness and the distribution of buffer time in different scenarios are shown in a case study. It validates the necessity and e?ectiveness of the consideration of robustness in the industrial practice.
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    Discretization Methods of a Rotating Flexible Rectangular Thin Plate
    FAN Jihua (范纪华), ZHANG Dingguo (章定国), SHEN Hong (谌宏)
    2020, 25 (1):  118-126.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-019-2129-8
    Abstract ( 285 )   PDF (370KB) ( 39 )  
    The rigid-flexible coupling dynamic modeling theory and the discretization methods of a rotating flexible rectangular thin plate are investigated in this paper. Based on the continuum mechanics, the rigid-flexible coupling dynamic model is established for the flexible rectangular thin plate undergoing large overall rotation, and the coupling term of the deformation which is caused by transverse deformation is considered. Assumed mode method (AMM), spline finite point method (SFPM) and Beizer ˉnite point method (BFPM) are used to describe the deformation of the flexible rectangular plate, and then the dynamic equations of a rotating flexible rectangular thin plate undergoing overall motion are derived by Lagrange's equation of the second kind. The dynamics of a cantilever plate undergoing large overall rotation is simulated via using different dynamic models, and the simulation results of the first order approximation model are compared with those of the traditional zero-order approximation model. It is shown that the first order approximation model with the dynamic stiffening terms can correctly describe the dynamic behavior of the system undergoing large overall rotation, while the zero-order approximation model cannot get the correct results. And AMM, SFPM, BFPM can well describe the deformation of a rotating flexible rectangular plate.
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    Research on a Dynamic Decision Mechanism of Demand Oriented Supply Chain Cooperation Behavior
    Lü Xiaodong (吕肖东), DING Hao (丁浩), QUAN Lin (全林)
    2020, 25 (1):  127-136.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-020-2157-4
    Abstract ( 196 )   PDF (223KB) ( 28 )  
    To solve the problem of supply chain management and decision-making under the restriction of the government and social group, we use the cooperative game theory method to seek a way to develop the enterprise. According to the general market competition in game analysis for product manufacturing enterprises as representatives for further discussion under the constraints of the government and social consumer groups, we examine the dynamic decision-making process of supply chain management, the attitudes adopted by the enterprises toward the government and consumer groups in the game for obtaining greater benefits, and the development of enter prises for providing creativity as well as theory and methodology.
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