Table of Content

    27 June 2015, Volume 20 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Numerical Investigation of the Dynamics for Low Tension Marine Cables
    CHEN Bin1 (陈斌), SU Feng1 (苏锋), HUO Cun-feng2 (霍存锋), ZHANG Ru-bin1 (张汝彬),YAO Bao-heng2* (姚宝恒), LIAN Lian2 (连琏)
    2015, 20 (3):  257-264.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1559-6
    Abstract ( 584 )  
    This paper presents a numerical investigation into the dynamics of marine cables which are extensively used in offshore industry. In this numerical study, the Euler-Bernoulli beam model is adopted to develop the governing equations of the cable. Bending stiffness is considered to cope with the low tension problem in local area of towing cable, and thus a more accurate solution with the consideration of the axial elongation can be given. The derived strongly-coupled and nonlinear governing equations are solved by a second-order accurate, implicit, and large time step stable central finite difference method. The quadratically convergent Newton-Raphson iteration method is applied to solving the discrete nonlinear algebraic equations. Then a towed array sonar system (TASS) problem is studied. The numerical solutions agree reasonably well with the experimental data and the simulated results of the references. The specified program of the present paper shows great robustness with high efficiency.
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    Data Fusion Algorithm for Multi-Sensor Dynamic System Based on Interacting Multiple Model
    CHEN Zhi-feng (陈志锋), CAI Yun-ze* (蔡云泽)
    2015, 20 (3):  265-272.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1556-9
    Abstract ( 358 )  
    This paper presents a data fusion algorithm for dynamic system with multi-sensor and uncertain system models. The algorithm is mainly based on Kalman filter and interacting multiple model (IMM). It processes crosscorrelated sensor noises by using augmented fusion before model interacting. And eigenvalue decomposition is utilized to reduce calculation complexity and implement parallel computing. In simulation part, the feasibility of the algorithm was tested and verified, and the relationship between sensor number and the estimation precision was studied. Results show that simply increasing the number of sensor cannot always improve the performance of the estimation. Type and number of sensors should be optimized in practical applications.
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    A Polynomial Time Algorithm for Checking Regularity of Totally Normed Process Algebra
    YANG Fei*(杨非), HUANG Hao (黄浩)
    2015, 20 (3):  273-280.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1555-x
    Abstract ( 377 )  
    A polynomial algorithm for the regularity problem of weak and branching bisimilarity on totally normed process algebra (PA) processes is given. Its time complexity is O(n3 + mn), where n is the number of transition rules and m is the maximal length of the rules. The algorithm works for totally normed basic process algebra (BPA) as well as basic parallel process (BPP).
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    Investigating the Interaction Between Gluconobacter Oxydans and Bacillus Megaterium for 2-keto-L-gulonic Acid Biosynthesis in the Two-Step Vitamin C Fermentation
    ZHANG Zhi-xiong1 (张志雄), SUN Jun-wei2 (孙君伟), YUAN Jing-qi1* (袁景淇)
    2015, 20 (3):  281-285.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1622-y
    Abstract ( 400 )  
    In the two-step vitamin C fermentation process, its precursor 2-keto-L-gulonic acid was synthesized from L-sorbose by mixed culture of Gluconobacter oxydans and Bacillus megaterium. The interaction between Gluconobacter oxydans and Bacillus megaterium remains unclear and it is a challenge to mathematically model the mixed growth of these two strains. The Monod-type equations were previously proposed to describe the coupled growth of Gluconobacter oxydans and Bacillus megaterium. However, in this study, we modeled the interaction of these two strains in a macroscopic view by introducing the population theory. Taking account of the fact that the density or concentration of Gluconobacter oxydans or Bacillus megaterium was hardly to measure accurately in the mixed culture broth, the data of concentrations of the substrate and product were used to indirectly investigate the relation between these two strains. Three batch experiments were used to validate our model. And according to the values of identified parameters, the type of interaction between Gluconobacter oxydans and Bacillus megaterium was concluded to be predation, where Gluconobacter oxydans was predator, and Bacillus megaterium was prey.
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    A Micro-Electro-Mechanical System-Based Bulk Acoustic Wave Piezoelectric Disk Resonator for Detecting z-axis Rotation Rate
    XU Zhong-xing (许仲兴), ZHANG Wei-ping*(张卫平), TANG Jian (唐健), ZHANG Gong (张弓),CHENG Yu-xiang (成宇翔), CHEN Wen-yuan (陈文元), GUAN Ran (关冉)
    2015, 20 (3):  286-292.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1623-x
    Abstract ( 440 )  
    This paper presents a bulk acoustic wave piezoelectric disk resonator based on a special pair of degenerative modes, to detect z-axis angular velocity. A single piezoelectric disk is operated in its appropriate modes in the kHz frequency range to achieve this function. This design combines the bulk acoustic wave drive/sense mode with lead zirconate titanate resonator which improves device’s performance and simplifies its structural complexity. The operation principle of piezoelectric disk resonator is given and validated by finite element method, and the scale factor of piezoelectric disk resonator is 0.977 μV/[(?) · s?1] without any amplification section. The results of impedance analysis for the prototype in the air, which is fabricated on lead zirconate titanate wafer by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System process, show that the resonant frequency of the piezoelectric disk resonator is about 190 kHz. Moreover, the measured frequency split between drive and sense mode is about 290 Hz without any tuning methods. At last, a closed-loop driving and detecting circuit system is designed and its modulation/demodulation method is studied, preliminary experiments show that this device is not sensitive to acceleration, but is sensitive to angular velocity, its performance parameters need follow-up experiments.
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    Optimal Burn-in and Preventive Maintenance Modeling with Competing Failure Processes
    HUANG Wen-ping1 (黄文平), ZHOU Jing-lun1 (周经伦),NING Ju-hong2* (宁菊红), LIU Tian-yu1 (刘天宇)
    2015, 20 (3):  293-297.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1624-9
    Abstract ( 585 )  
    In this article, we assume that the product in the burn-in procedure only experiences continuous smooth degradation process, while in the field operation period the product experiences both continuous smooth degradation process and shock process. The shock process can cause the product not only traumatic failure, but also additional abrupt degradation damage. After the system reliability model and maintenance model have been proposed, the optimal burn-in setting and age replacement duration are obtained under the considering of minimizing the long run average cost rate. A numerical example with the real data is analyzed to illustrate the application of the model.
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    Study on Probability Plot Correlation Coefficient of the Log-Weibull Distribution
    JIANG Ren-yan (蒋仁言)
    2015, 20 (3):  298-301.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1625-8
    Abstract ( 508 )  
    The log-Weibull distribution is a variant of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. The probability plot of a distribution model is desired since it can help to decide on whether the model is appropriate for fitting a given dataset and can provide the initial estimate of the model parameters. The decision on the appropriateness of a distribution is somehow subjective. This paper presents a probability plot of the log-Weibull distribution (LWPP). The distribution of the probability plot correlation coefficient is studied. From this distribution, a lower confidence limit is determined for determining whether the probability plot correlation coefficient derived from a given data set is large enough. The appropriateness and usefulness of this study are illustrated by two real-world examples.
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    Validation Metric of Degradation Model with Dynamic Performance
    YANG Chun-boa (阳纯波), ZENG Sheng-kuia,b (曾声奎), GUO Jian-bina,b* (郭健彬)
    2015, 20 (3):  302-306.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1626-7
    Abstract ( 510 )  
    With more and more attention on degradation process, we need the degradation model to be accurate all over the time rather than only at some specific moments. However, the traditional validation metric only estimates difference of static features. A validation method proposed in this paper uses hypothesis testing to identify whether the distributions of experimental measurements and simulation results are consistent. Then, based on the deviation between sample means, a global validation metric which reflects the difference of degradation process between computational model and physical system all over the service time is derived from the statistics of deviation between sample means. Furthermore, curve fit method for discrete experimental measurements is introduced. The case of electro-hydraulic servo valve is studied, and the results show that the proposed validation metric is appropriate for the validation of degradation model with dynamic performance output.
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    Reliability Analysis of Retracting Actuator with Multi-State Based on Goal Oriented Methodology
    ZHOU Lin-gan1 (周琳), DONG Hai-ping1 (董海平), YI Xiao-jian1* (伊枭剑),LI Yuan-yuan2 (李媛媛), LAI Yue-hua1 (赖岳华)
    2015, 20 (3):  307-311.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1627-6
    Abstract ( 463 )  
    In order to conduct effective reliability analysis of retracting actuator with multi-state (success state, safety failure state and action failure state), we redefine type-3 operator in goal oriented (GO) method to describe three states of main charge of retracting actuator and improve type-15 operator in GO method to describe the logic relations of multi-state output. The quantitative and qualitative reliability analyses of retracting actuator are made based on GO method in this paper. The system state probability of retracting actuator is obtained through quantitative analysis, and its weakness is found through qualitative analysis. The analysis results show that GO method is effective to improve the reliability of retracting actuator, and this method is also feasible for reliability analysis of other complicated initiating explosive systems.
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    Reliability Copula Model for Wind Turbine Gearbox Based on Failure Correlation
    AN Zong-wen1* (安宗文), ZHANG Yu1 (张宇), WANG Zhong-lai2 (汪忠来)
    2015, 20 (3):  312-316.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1628-5
    Abstract ( 492 )  
    On the basis of each gear’s failure correlation, the reliability Copula model of a wind turbine gearbox is established and a 1.5MW wind turbine gearbox is taken as the research object. Firstly, based on the dynamic reliability model of mechanical parts, each gear’s life distribution function of a wind turbine gearbox is obtained. The life distribution function can be used as the marginal distributions of the system’s joint distribution. Secondly, Copula function is introduced to describe the failure correlation between parts, and the appropriate Copula function is selected according to the shape characters of Copula probability density function. Finally, the wind turbine gearbox system is divided into three parts according to the failure correlation of each gear. The Sklar theorem and the thought of step by step analysis are used to obtain the reliability Copula model for a wind turbine gearbox based on failure correlation.
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    Reliability Prediction Method Based on State Space Model for Rolling Element Bearing
    LI Hong-kun1 (李宏坤), ZHANG Zhi-xin2* (张志新), LI Xiu-gang3 (李秀刚), REN Yuan-jie1 (任远杰)
    2015, 20 (3):  317-321.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1629-4
    Abstract ( 618 )  
    Reliability analysis based on equipment’s performance degradation characteristics is one of the significant research areas in reliability research. Nowadays, many researches are carried on multi-sample analysis. But it is limited for a single equipment reliability prediction. Therefore, the method of reliability prediction based on state space model (SSM) is proposed in this research. Feature energy of the monitored signals is extracted with the wavelet packet analysis and the associated frequency band energy with online monitored data. Then, degradation feature is improved by moving average filtering processing taken as input pair model parameter of SSM to be estimated. In the end, state space predicting model of degradation index is established. The probability density distribution of the degradation index is predicted, and the degree of reliability is calculated. A real testing example of bearing is used to demonstrate the rationality and effectiveness of this method. It is a useful method for single sample reliability prediction.
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    Optimal Preventive Maintenance Policy with Consideration of Production Wait
    WANG Wen-bin (王文彬), LI Ping* (李娉), PENG Rui (彭锐)
    2015, 20 (3):  322-325.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1630-y
    Abstract ( 410 )  
    In this paper, we consider the replacement of a single unit with catastrophic failure mode. Besides replaced at a preset time, the unit is also replaced at failure time or if it encounters a production wait and its age has reached a threshold. The joint preventive maintenance interval and threshold optimization problem are formulated with the objective of minimizing the expected cost per unit time in long run. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the applicability of the model.
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    Effect of Fluid-Structure Interaction on Sealed Flow Field and Leakage Rate Based on Computational Fluid Dynamics
    TANG He-nan* (汤赫男), WANG Shi-jie (王世杰), ZHAO Jing (赵晶)
    2015, 20 (3):  326-330.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1631-x
    Abstract ( 417 )  
    This paper addresses the issue of reciprocating compressors staggered labyrinth seal structure. The internal flow field of sealed structure, the displacement of cylinder and piston for different tooth profile angles are analyzed synchronously using FLUENT software, and the effects of fluid-structure interaction on the performance of the labyrinth seal are revealed. The results indicate that with the growth of tooth profile angle, the leakage rate of labyrinth seal tends to decrease first, and then increase. The results of fluid-structure interaction analysis are close to those of actual engineering. The effect of fluid-structure interaction makes tiny deformation in calculation mesh of piston and cylinder structure, and the coupling interaction affects the performance of the labyrinth seal.
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    Stochastic Fatigue Life and Reliability Prediction Based on Residual Strength
    ZUO Fang-jun (左芳君), ZHU Shun-peng (朱顺鹏), GAO Hui-ying (高会英),L¨U Zhi-qiang (吕志强), HUANG Hong-zhong* (黄洪钟)
    2015, 20 (3):  331-337.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1632-9
    Abstract ( 509 )  
    A randomized approach is developed to solve a deterministic equation. The method uses random deterministic approach to achieve the fatigue life based on residual strength and S-N curve. We propose a oneto- one transformation method to deduce the distribution of fatigue life from the residual strength. The proposed method is simple and effective, and can be used for fatigue life prediction. An example is given to illustrate how the method works.
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    Uncertainty Quantification for Structural Optimal Design Based on Evidence Theory
    HU Sheng-yong* (胡盛勇), LUO Jun (罗军)
    2015, 20 (3):  338-343.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1633-8
    Abstract ( 484 )  
    Uncertainty design can take account of aleatory and epistemic uncertainty in optimal processes. Aleatory uncertainty and epistemic uncertainty can be expressed as evidence theory uniformly, and evidence theory is used to describe the uncertainty. Transferring and response with evidence theory for structural optimal design are introduced. The principle of response evaluation is also set up. Finally, the cantilever beam in a test system is optimized in the introduced optimization process, and the results are estimated by the evaluation principle. The optimal process is validated after the optimization of beam.
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    Reliability Analysis of Excavator Rectifier Feedback System with Multi-State Components Based on Belief Universal Generating Function Method
    MI Jin-hua1 (米金华), LI Yan-feng1* (李彦锋), HUANG Hong-zhong1 (黄洪钟),LI Ai-feng2 (李爱峰), WANG Xiao-ming2 (王晓明)
    2015, 20 (3):  344-348.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1634-7
    Abstract ( 472 )  
    In view of the complexity and uncertainty of system, both the state performances and state probabilities of multi-state components can be expressed by interval numbers. The belief function theory is used to characterize the uncertainty caused by various factors. A modified Markov model is proposed to obtain the state probabilities of components at any given moment and subsequently the mass function is used to represent the precise belief degree of state probabilities. Based on the primary studies of universal generating function (UGF) method, a belief UGF (BUGF) method is utilized to analyze the reliability and the uncertainty of excavator rectifier feedback system. This paper provides an available method to evaluate the reliability of multi-state systems (MSSs) with interval state performances and state probabilities, and also avoid the interval expansion problem.
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    Multi-Point and Multi-Interval Availabilities for Markov Repairable Systems with History-Dependent Up and Down States
    WANG Wen-guang (王文光), DU Shi-jia* (杜时佳), CUI Li-rong (崔利荣)
    2015, 20 (3):  349-352.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1635-6
    Abstract ( 465 )  
    A Markov repairable system with history-dependent up and down states is presented. The state space of the repairable system is divided into three sets, which are up states, down states and changeable states. Using aggregated stochastic processes, we can get the multi-interval availability and multi-point availability for the Markov repairable system. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the obtained results.
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    Transformer Fault Analysis Based on Bayesian Networks and Importance Measures
    REN Fang-yu (任方宇), SI Shu-bin* (司书宾), CAI Zhi-qiang (蔡志强), ZHANG Shuai (张帅)
    2015, 20 (3):  353-357.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1636-5
    Abstract ( 486 )  
    Complex environment stresses bring many uncertainties to transformer fault. The Bayesian network (BN) can represent prior knowledge in the form of probability which makes it an effective tool to deal with the uncertain problems. This paper established a BN model for the transformer fault diagnosis with practical operation dataset and expert knowledge. Then importance measures are introduced to indentify the key attributes which affect the results of transformer diagnosis most. Moreover, a strategy was proposed to reduce the number of attribute in transformer fault detection and the resource cost was saved. At last, a diagnosis case of practical transformer was implemented to verify the effectiveness of this method.
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    Primary Research on Real-Time Fault Diagnosis Platform for Fuel Tank System of an Aircraft
    BAO Yong-lin (鲍泳林)
    2015, 20 (3):  358-362.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1637-4
    Abstract ( 557 )  
    Sub-tanks in fuel tank systems of aircrafts transfer fuel to engines in certain order. These sub-tanks and attached tank-accessories affect each other, and make fault diagnosis in such systems rather difficult. Without real measured data, this paper analyzes fault modes and fault effects of the fuel tank system, including its tankaccessories, of a given aircraft. Fault model of the system is built theoretically, and fault diagnosis criteria are deduced. Such criteria are then quantified to train a back propagation neural network (BPNN) as fault diagnosis model. To realize fault diagnosis of the real fuel tank system, a real-time fault diagnosis platform based on LabView and VxWorks to perform this diagnosis method is discussed. This platform is a technical groundwork for fault diagnosis in real fuel tank systems.
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    A Fuzzy Fault Diagnosis Method for Large Radar Based on Directed Graph Model
    BAI Lu* (白璐), DU Cheng-lie (杜承烈), GUO Yang-ming (郭阳明)
    2015, 20 (3):  363-369.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1638-3
    Abstract ( 496 )  
    To meet the requirement of the real-time, accuracy and multi-target diagnosis of the large radar system, a new fuzzy fault diagnosis method based on directed graph model is proposed in this paper. In this method, the large complex system model is defined using the directed graph model firstly, in which the nodes observing the fault by the hierarchical reconstruction of the directed graph are located, then the fault dependency matrix between these nodes and the fault sources are established. And then, we utilize the sensors’ alarm probabilities under different situations to build the characteristic fault observation matrix in the fault observation space. Finally, the optimized corresponding diagnosis method using a fuzzy function, which describes the similarity between the actual observation vector and the fault’s characteristic vector, is designed. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can achieve high diagnosis efficiency and accuracy. It can be widely used in the real radar system.
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    A Research for Error Compensation Algorithm of Dual Range Pressure Sensor
    WANG Zhao-yang (王朝阳), LI Hai-bin* (李海滨), WEI Guang-mei (韦广梅)
    2015, 20 (3):  370-373.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1639-2
    Abstract ( 529 )  
    Large range-high precision measurement has always been a challenge in the field of mechanical measurements. This paper built the input-output differential equation of Dual Range Pressure Sensor (DRPS) and gave an error compensation algorithm of DRPS after analyzing the mathematical model of DRPS. For a given situation, dynamic measurement errors of sensor parameters can be compensated by this method. Finally the accuracy and feasibility of the method were verified using Adams Software.
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    Optimal Age Replacement Policy with Replacement Occurrence While the Warranty is in Effect
    PARK Minjae1, JUNG Ki Mun2, PARK Dong Ho3*
    2015, 20 (3):  374-379.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1640-9
    Abstract ( 486 )  
    This study considers an age replacement policy (ARP) for a repairable product with an increasing failure rate with and without a product warranty. As for the warranty policy to consider in association with such an age replacement policy, we adapt a renewable minimal repair-replacement warrant (MRRW) policy with 2D factors of failure time of the product and its corresponding repair time. The expected cost rate during the life cycle of the product is utilized as a criterion to find the optimal policies for both with and without the product warranty. We determine the optimal replacement age that minimizes the objective function which evaluates the expected cost rate during the product cycle and investigate the impact of several factors on the optimal replacement age. The main objective of this study lies on the generalization of the classical age replacement policy to the situation where a renewable warranty depending on 2D factors is in effect. We present some interesting observations regarding the effect of relevant factors based on numerical analysis.
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    Monotonicity Evaluation Method of Monitoring Feature Series Based on Ranking Mutual Information
    ZHAO Chun-yu1* (赵春宇), LIU Jing-jiang1 (刘景江), MA Lun2 (马伦), ZHANG Wei-jun3 (张伟君)
    2015, 20 (3):  380-384.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-015-1641-8
    Abstract ( 553 )  
    As a prerequisite for effective prognostics, the goodness of the features affects the complexity of the prognostic methods. Comparing to features quality evaluation in diagnostics, features evaluation for prognostics is a new problem. Normally, the monotonic tendency of feature series can be used as the visual representation of equipment damage cumulation so that forecasting its future health states is easy to implement. Through introducing the concept of ranking mutual information in ordinal case, a monotonicity evaluation method of monitoring feature series is proposed. Finally, this method is verified by the simulating feature series and the results verify its effectivity. For the specific application in industry, the evaluation results can be used as the standard for selecting prognostic feature.
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