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    31 December 2014, Volume 19 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Application of Principle Component Analysis and Logistic Regression in Analyzing miRNA Markers of Brain Arteriovenous Malformation
    JIANG Lu1 (蒋路), HUANG Jun1 (黄俊), ZHANG Zhi-jun1 (张志君), YANG Guo-yuan1,2 (杨国源), WANG Yong-ting1* (王永亭)
    2014, 19 (6):  641-645.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1560-0
    Abstract ( 562 )  
    Brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) is frequently described as vascular malformation. Although computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and angiography can clearly detect lesions, there are no diagnostic biological markers of BAVM available. Current study demonstrated that microRNA (miRNA) showed a feasible marker for vascular disease. To find key correlations between these miRNAs and the onset of BAVM, we carried out chip analysis of serum miRNAs by identifying 18 potential markers of BAVM. We then constructed a principle component analysis and logistic regression (PCA-LR) model to analyze the 18 miRNAs collected from 77 patients. Another 9 independent samples were used to test the resulting model. The results showed that miRNAs hsa-mir-126-3p and hsa-mir-140 are important protective factors, while hsa-mir-338 is a dominating risk factor, all of which have stronger correlation with BAVM than others. We also compared the testing results using PCA-LR model with those using LR model. The comparison revealed that PCA-LR model is better in predicting the disease.
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    Polarization and Functional Plasticity of Macrophages in Regulating Innate Immune Response
    LIU Wen-jun (刘雯君), GAO Wei-qiang (高维强), KONG Xiao-ni*(孔晓妮)
    2014, 19 (6):  646-650.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1561-z
    Abstract ( 652 )  
    Innate immune system is the first line of resistance that protects the host body from invasion of pathogens. During this innate immune response process, macrophages are well known to be the powerful leading players located throughout the body in defecting attacks. Originated from bone marrow, monocyte-macrophage lineage still manifests hallmarks of plasticity and diversity. Toll-like receptor (TLR) or interferon gamma (IFNγ) drives macrophages into M1 (classical) activation while IL-4/IL-13 or IL-10 induces M2 (alternative) activation. Different phenotypes of macrophages have distinct biological functions, transcriptional profiles, signaling pathways and cytokines along with chemokine framework. Classical M1 macrophages show strong pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial abilities while M2 macrophages are skilled at anti-inflammation, wound healing and fibrosis. Researches have shown that under different pathological conditions, macrophages are programmed to be different phenotypic subsets and play disparate immunomodulation. However, under the intricate microenvironment, there might be mixed populations instead of a kind of unique phenotypic macrophages. Evidences also show that macrophages can be converted from one phenotype to another according to microenvironmental signals (cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and microbial-associated molecule patterns). A better understanding of the mechanisms of plasticity and polarization of macrophages will shine new lights into the mechanisms underlying the innate inflammation diseases and suggest promising therapeutic targets.
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    Sirtuin Functions in the Brain: From Physiological to Pathological Aspects
    SHAO Jia-xiang1,2,3 (邵家骧), ZHANG Ting-ting2,3 (张婷婷), LIU Teng-yuan2,3 (刘腾远), QUAN Yi-zhou1,2,3 (全亦周), LI Fan2,3 (李凡), LIU Jie1,2,3 (刘杰),YANG Xiao2,3 (杨霄), XIE Qian2,3 (谢谦), XIA Wei-liang1,2,3* (夏伟梁)
    2014, 19 (6):  651-662.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1562-y
    Abstract ( 506 )  
    Sirtuins are a family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) dependent deacetylases involved in multiple biological functions including metabolism, inflammation, stress resistance and aging. In mammals, there are seven members (Sirt1—Sirt7), with diversities in their subcellular localizations and enzymatic activities. Here, we review the functions of sirtuins, with a focus on their roles in normal brain physiology such as neural development regulation, body homeostasis maintenance, and memory formation. We also discuss the role of sirtuins in a variety of brain diseases including stroke, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and motor neuron dysfunction. Because of the emerging functions of sirtuins in brain physiology and pathology, drugs targeting sirtuins may offer potential therapeutic values for brain disorders.
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    Genome-Wide Identification of Coding Small Open Reading Frames: The Unknown Transcriptome
    LI Hong-meia (李红梅), HU Chuan-shenga (胡传圣), BAI Lingb* (白玲)
    2014, 19 (6):  663-668.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1563-x
    Abstract ( 597 )  
    The identification of the complete repertoire of functional peptides in a cell is ultimately essential for a systems-wide understanding of its behavior. There have indeed been a plethora of studies purportedly designed to this end. However, these studies in fact routinely overlook a potentially significant portion of their data that might encode for peptides that are smaller than 100 amino acids. This is largely owing to technical reasons associated with the difficulty of distinguishing, with statistical significance, a coding sequence of this length from a non-coding sequence. Recently, a growing number of studies have shown that there are indeed many small open reading frame (sORF) encoded peptides that play important roles in a wide range of different biological processes. As such, there is now significant interest in methodologies that can be used to identify this drastically neglected portion of the cellular proteome. In this review, we introduce the presently known annotated sORFs and describe the new strategies that have been used to determine the coding sORFs, genome-wide.
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    Synchrotron Radiation X-Ray Inducing a Significant Increase in the CD38 Level of Rodent Testes by Generating Oxidative Stress
    CAO Wei (曹威), MA Ying-xin (马英鑫), YIN Wei-hai* (殷卫海)
    2014, 19 (6):  669-674.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1564-9
    Abstract ( 492 )  
    Synchrotron radiation (SR) X-ray has significant potential for medical applications. However, the mechanisms underlying the effects of SR X-ray on biological tissues remain unclear. Because increasing evidence has indicated critical roles of cluster of differentiation 38 (CD38) in various cellular functions and cell survival, in this study we used rodent testes as a model to determine the effects of SR X-ray irradiation on the CD38 level of the testes. We found that SR X-ray irradiation led to a significant increase in the CD38 level of rodent testes one day after the irradiation. In contrast, the SR X-ray irradiation did not produce a significant increase in the CD38 level of the testes from the rats that were administered with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, thus suggesting that oxidative stress plays a significant role in the SR X-ray irradiation-induced increase in the CD38 levels. Our study has also provided evidence suggesting that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity is not involved in the SR X-ray irradiation-produced effect on the CD38 levels. Collectively, this study has provided first in vivo evidence indicating that CD38 levels can be increased by ionizing radiation, in which oxidative stress plays an important role. Because oxidative stress occurs in ionizing radiation as well as such diseases as cerebral ischemia and Parkinson’s disease, oxidative stress may produce pathological effects by inducing increased CD38 levels.
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    Mechanical Properties of Artificial Materials for Bone Repair
    HUANG Qian-wei (黄芊蔚), WANG Li-ping (王莉萍), WANG Jin-ye* (王瑾晔)
    2014, 19 (6):  675-680.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1565-8
    Abstract ( 491 )  
    Bone defect caused by injury, infection, tumor and congenital diseases is one of the most common diseases in clinical orthopaedics. Bone grafts are necessary when self-healing is not effective during the recovery. Preparation of ideal bone substitutes with good biocompatibility and biodegradability to repair bone defects has become the focus. So far artificial materials used in hard tissue repair and reconstruction most notably are metals and their alloys, then the ceramic materials and their composite materials. From the perspective of mechanical properties, metals have some advantages, but corrosion issue and stress shielding of metal have baffled scientists through the age and have been long searched for solution. The elastic modulus of ceramic is more close to the natural bone compared to metal while the improvement of brittleness has been always the emphasis for clinical use. Therefore, development of materials of proper mechanical properties without affecting biological compatibility has become a significant subject.
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    Reproducibility in Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy
    XIONG Min (熊敏), YE Jian*(叶坚)
    2014, 19 (6):  681-690.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1566-7
    Abstract ( 599 )  
    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an intense ongoing hot topic because it is an attractive tool for sensing or detecting molecules in trace amounts. Despite its high specificity and sensitivity, the SERS technique has not been established as a routine analytic method most likely due to the low reproducibility of the SERS signal. This review considers the influence factors to produce the poor reproducibility during the SERS measurement. This review starts with the discussion of calculation of surface-enhanced Raman intensity in order to explain the reason why it is so difficult to achieve a high reproducibility of SERS measurement from the origin of enhancement mechanism. Then we focus on the fabrication of SERS substrates generally including two types: ① single particles and ② arrays on substrate that are directly used to detect molecules or other components. In addition, we discuss the molecule factors and optical system for the reproducibility for sample-to-sample or spot-to-spot on a substrate. In the final part of this review, some effects resulting in the irreproducibility of Raman bands’ position from recent literatures are discussed.
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    Skin Penetration of Inorganic and Metallic Nanoparticles
    WANG Li-ping (王莉萍), WANG Jin-ye* (王瑾晔)
    2014, 19 (6):  691-697.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1567-6
    Abstract ( 354 )  
    Nanotechnology is a rapidly growing science of producing and utilizing nano-sized particles. These nanomaterials are already having an impact on health care. Nowadays we are using nanoproducts in various fields, and this leads to direct and indirect exposure in human. Skin is the largest organ of the body and functions as the first-line barrier between the external environment and the internal organs of the human body. Then people worry about the nanoparticle (NP) small enough to penetrate the skin. The potential of solid NPs to penetrate the stratum corneum and to diffuse into underlying structures raises a considerable health and safety issue for their topical use. We review the current state of knowledge on the potential risk to human health presented by skin penetration of NPs nanotechnologies, and explore the robustness of current research strategies and directions to ensure the development of “safe” and publicly accepted nano-based products and technologies.
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    A New Full Bridge High Intensity Focused Ultrasound Power System with Harmonic Cancellation
    WU Hao (吴昊), SHEN Guo-feng* (沈国峰), SU Zhi-qiang (苏志强), CHEN Ya-zhu (陈亚珠)
    2014, 19 (6):  698-701.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1568-5
    Abstract ( 510 )  
    Abstract: The feasibility of a new full bridge high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) amplifier system with harmonic cancellation is evaluated in this study. Harmonic cancellation technique is applied to these power amplifiers, which can eliminate the 3rd harmonic and all even harmonics. Since this technique requires two channels of phase signal to control one channel of power amplifier, the signal generator is required to double its output. The transducer array proposed in this study has 100 elements. So we choose an FPGA chip to generate 200 driving signals, and each channel has a phase resolution of 2 ns, less than 1?. The phase signal from the FPGA meets the requirement of driving the power amplifiers. The output waveform of one channel of power amplifier (voltage across the transducer) is evaluated, and shows fewer harmonic components.
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    Recent Advances in Radio Frequency Ablation Techniques of Atrial Fibrillation
    ZENG Bao-yu (曾宝玉), BAI Jing-feng*(白景峰)
    2014, 19 (6):  702-705.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1569-4
    Abstract ( 442 )  
    Multiple wavelet hypothesis and fibrillatory conduction are believed to be atrial fibrillation’s pathogenesis. Radio frequency ablation (RFA) technique, a therapy for atrial fibrillation (AF), applies radio frequency (RF) energy to targeted tissue to make it transmural. Research on AF ablation has already been conducted in China. Currently, there are single-electrode and dual-electrode ablation electrodes. It is discovered that the latter can reduce the treatment time and maintain the ablation shape of the tissue. Clinical application has shown that it has become the first-line treatment option for part of indications patients with AF.
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    A Hemodynamic Study of the Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Enhancing Popliteal Venous Flow
    YANG Shun-gang1 (杨顺刚), Gong Xia2 (龚霞), WEI Sheng-kai1 (魏盛凯), GU Xin-feng1 (顾鑫锋), SHI Jeremy3 (施力玮), JIANG Chuan4 (江川), WAN Da-qian4 (万大千), WANG Jin-wu4* (王金武), DAI Ke-rong4* (戴尅戎), YAN Meng-ning4 (严孟宁
    2014, 19 (6):  706-711.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1570-y
    Abstract ( 443 )  
    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation has been studied to be a method of prophylaxis for deep venous thrombosis by activating the calf muscle pump. However, there is little evidence of the effects of different stimulating parameters on hemodynamics and comfort levels. The objective of this paper is to compare the effects of different stimulating parameters (current amplitude, pulse-width) on hemodynamic alterations of the popliteal vein and the comfort levels in a group of fourteen healthy subjects. Doppler ultrasound detection of peak venous velocity and blood volume were taken from baseline, twelve sequential electrical stimulations and foot dorsiflexion for each subject. A visual analogue scale was used to assess the subjects’ pain perception of neuromuscular electrical stimulation. The results showed that peak venous velocity and blood volume augmented as current amplitude and pulse-width increased while pain level also increased. A compromise was reached that parameters consisting of an amplitude of 10mA and a pulse-width of 500 μs would obtain a high-peak venous velocity and blood flow volume with a relatively comfortable perception. In addition, parameters consisting of an amplitude of 20mA and a pulse-width of 300 μs were also shown to be a promising choice. However, further studies need to be done to validate and enrich these findings.
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    The Research on Infrared Image Denoising in Getting an Undistorted Sound Field Distribution
    SU Zhi-qiang1,2 (苏志强), SHEN Guo-feng1,2* (沈国峰), YU Ying3 (余瑛)
    2014, 19 (6):  712-714.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1571-x
    Abstract ( 428 )  
    Exploring the distribution of focused ultrasound field attracts more and more investigators’ attention. Making use of the heat property of focused ultrasound, we can measure the distribution of temperature to calculate the distribution of focused ultrasound field. During the exploration, we found that the temperature rise rate had a liner relation to sound intensity. So we conducted experiments and got the infrared images with noise. In order to obtain an accurate distribution of focused ultrasound field, it’s necessary to find out a solution to get rid of the noise in infrared images. In traditional, we use hydrophone to explore the distribution of focused ultrasound field even in nonlinear area. So the result got by hydrophone was considered as standard. So the investigation was focused on the experimental validation of a filter which was the most suitable way for image process of infrared chart. So the ability of the filter should be that removing most noise and the distribution of temperature rise rate is unchanged. Six kinds of filters were used to deal with the raw data to obtain related information, from the results, we drew a conclusion that gauss filter was superior to the others filter, and a non- distortion distribution of focused ultrasound field would be get by the use of Gaussian filter.
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    Real-Time MRI-Controlled Ultrasound Hyperthermia System for Superficial Tumor Treatment
    ZHU Meng-yuan (朱梦媛), SHEN Guo-feng* (沈国峰), SU Zhi-qiang (苏志强),CHEN Sheng (陈晟), WU Hao (吴昊)
    2014, 19 (6):  715-717.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1572-9
    Abstract ( 551 )  
    Ultrasound hyperthermia is one of the most important methods in tumor treatment and characterized by non-invasiveness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based temperature mapping techniques are safe compared with invasive methods and have been applied to detect temperature changes for a variety of applications. Among these techniques, the proton resonance frequency (PRF) method is relatively advanced. With a temperature measuring experiment, the effectiveness of PRF method has been proved, because the outcome temperature curve and the real temperature curve fit well. After that, an experiment has been conducted on tumors inside rabbit legs and the result indicates that this system is able to performance hyperthermia at targets based on PRF method in temperature mapping.
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    Design of Rehabilitation Robot with Combined Movement of Arms and Legs
    ZHANG Yinga (张莹), FANG Juanb (方娟), XIE Lea,b*(谢叻)
    2014, 19 (6):  718-720.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1573-8
    Abstract ( 402 )  
    Rehabilitation instruments are effective tools for patients to recover from disability. However, we still do not have a rehabilitation instrument which could provide combined movement with arms and legs. Rehabilitation with combined movement of arms and legs is completely a new method. In order to check the effect of this new rehabilitation method and to provide patients with more efficient rehabilitation instrument, we design a new rehabilitation robot. This robot lets patients practice when they lie down and stand up. This article explains the design of this instrument clearly. Using Unigraphics NX software to build 3D model, we have a complete design of this rehabilitation robot.
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    Research on the Physical Property of Diesel-Gasoline Blend Fuel
    BAO Tang-tang (包堂堂), ZHOU Bo (周波), DENG Jun (邓俊), WU Zhi-jun* (吴志军)
    2014, 19 (6):  721-727.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1574-7
    Abstract ( 511 )  
    In this paper, physical property parameters including density, viscosity and surface tension of different contents of diesel-gasoline blend fuel were measured and analyzed. The experiments were performed on the dieselgasoline blend fuels with 4 different volume fractions of diesel (20%, 40%, 60% and 80%) at temperature from 5?C to 65?C. The influence of temperature and diesel content on the blends’ properties was summarized based on experimental data, formulas about the material parameters were established, and the accuracy of these formulas was verified. Besides, saturated vapor pressure, freezing point and flash point of the blend fuel have also been measured and analyzed, and a database of the material parameters of the blends was also established.
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    Free-Surface Wave Interaction with a Very Large Floating Structure
    WANG Ying-guang (王迎光)
    2014, 19 (6):  728-735.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1558-7
    Abstract ( 591 )  
    The free-surface wave interaction with a pontoon-type very large floating structure (VLFS) is analyzed by utilizing a modal expansion method. The modal expansion method consists of separating the hydrodynamic analysis and the dynamic response analysis of the structure. In the dynamic response analysis of the structure, the deflection of the structure with various edge conditions is decomposed into vibration modes that can be arbitrarily chosen. Free-free beam model, pinned-free beam model and fixed-free beam model are three different types of edge conditions considered in this study. For each of these beam models, the detailed mathematical formulations for calculating the corresponding eigenvalues and eigenmodes have been given, and the mathematical formulations corresponding to the beam models of pinned-free beam and fixed-free beam are novel. For the hydrodynamic analysis of the structure, the boundary value problem (BVP) equations in terms of plate modes have been established, and the BVP equations corresponding to the beam models of pinned-free beam and fixedfree beam are also novel. When these BVP equations are solved numerically, the structure deflections and the wave reflection and transmission coefficients can be obtained. These calculation results point out some findings valuable for engineering design.
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    Numerical Study of Quasi-Static Crack Growth Problems Based on Extended Finite Element Method
    ZHENG An-xing (郑安兴), LUO Xian-qi*(罗先启)
    2014, 19 (6):  736-746.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1557-8
    Abstract ( 423 )  
    The extended finite element method (XFEM) is a numerical method for modeling discontinuities within a classical finite element framework. Based on the algorithm of XFEM, the major factors such as integral domain factor and mesh density which all influence the calculation accuracy of stress intensity factor (SIF) are discussed, and the proper parameters to calculate the SIF are given. The results from the case analysis demonstrate that the crack path is the most sensitive to the crack growth increment size, and the crack path is not mesh-sensitive. A reanalysis method for the XFEM has been introduced. The example presented shows that there is a significantly reduced computational cost for each iteration of crack growth achieved by using the reanalysis method and the reanalysis approach has increasing benefits as the mesh density increases or the value of crack growth increments size decreases.
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    Distributed Model Predictive Control with One-Step Delay Communication for Large-Scale Systems and a Case Study
    2014, 19 (6):  747-754.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1575-6
    Abstract ( 555 )  
    A distributed model predictive control (MPC) scheme with one-step delay communication is proposed for on-line optimization and control of large-scale systems in this paper. Cooperation between subsystems is achieved by exchanging information with neighbor-to-neighbor communication and by optimizing the local problem with the improved performance index in the neighborhood. A distributed MPC algorithm with one-step delay communication is developed for the situation that there is a one-step delay in the information available from its neighbors when a subsystem solves the local optimization problem. The nominal stability is employed for the whole system under the distributed MPC algorithm without the inequality constraints. Finally, the case study of the reactor-storage-separator (RSS) system is illustrated to test the practicality of the presented control algorithm.
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    Groupwise Registration of Brain Magnetic Resonance Images: A Review
    LIU Qin (刘钦), WANG Qian*(王乾)
    2014, 19 (6):  755-762.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1576-5
    Abstract ( 475 )  
    A relatively new family of image registration methods, namely groupwise registration, has recently emerged and been widely investigated due to its fundamentally key role in analyzing image populations in terms of atlas-based analysis or clinical diagnostic systems. Compared with pairwise registration, groupwise registration is capable of handling a large-scale population of images simultaneously in an unbiased way. In this paper, a review of the latest research on groupwise registration is presented. First, the schemes of pairwise registration and groupwise registration are compared. Then, a classification of groupwise registration and several exemplar implementations of groupwise registration are illustrated, including their experimental results. Finally, typical applications of groupwise registration, e.g., infant atlas construction, and population-based anatomical variability evaluation, are discussed in this paper.
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