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    30 August 2014, Volume 19 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Region of Interest Based Selective Encryption Scheme for Privacy Protection in H.264 Video
    GUO Jie*(郭捷), XU Jia-yun (徐家运), BAO Jia-li (鲍佳立)
    2014, 19 (4):  385-391.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1513-7
    Abstract ( 603 )  
    A selective encryption scheme for region of interest (ROI) of H.264 video is proposed to protect the personal privacy in a video. The most important part of video can be protected with less cost and operation by only encrypting the content of ROIs. Human face regions are selected as ROI and detected by using Gaussian skin color model. Independent ROI encoding is realized with the mechanism of flexible macro-block ordering (FMO). Frames are divided into grid-like slice-groups which can be combined flexibly to form a required ROI. Both luminance component and chrominance component of the macro-blocks in ROI are modified to achieve good encryption quality and location accuracy. In the process of decryption, the encrypted area is located automatically. There is no need to transmit additional position information of ROIs to the end of decryption. The encrypted video is decrypted correctly with the secret key. JM18.4 software is employed to perform the simulation experiment. Experimental results show the accuracy and effectiveness of our scheme to encrypt and decrypt the ROIs in H.264 video.
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    Audio Authenticity: Duplicated Audio Segment Detection in Waveform Audio File
    XIAO Ji-nian1 (肖佶年), JIA Yun-zhe1 (贾蕴哲), FU Er-dong1 (付尔东),HUANG Zheng1* (黄征), LI Yan2 (李岩), SHI Shao-pei2 (施少培)
    2014, 19 (4):  392-397.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1515-5
    Abstract ( 701 )  
    Waveform audio (WAV) file is a widely used file format of uncompressed audio. With the rapid development of digital media technology, one can easily insert duplicated segments with powerful audio editing software, e.g. inserting a segment of audio with negative meaning into the existing audio file. The duplicated segments can change the meaning of the audio file totally. So for a WAV file to be used as evidence in legal proceedings and historical documents, it is very importance to identify if there are any duplicated segments in it. This paper proposes a method to detect duplicated segments in a WAV file. Our method is based on the similarity calculation between two different segments. Duplicated segments are prone to having similar audio waveform, i.e., a high similarity. We use fast convolution algorithm to calculate the similarity, which makes our method quit efficient. We calculate the similarity between any two different segments in a digital audio file and use the similarity to judge which segments are duplicated. Experimental results show the feasibility and efficiency of our method on detecting duplicated audio segments.
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    Efficient and Provably-Secure Certificateless Proxy Re-encryption Scheme for Secure Cloud Data Sharing
    WANG Liang-liang1* (王亮亮), CHEN Ke-fei2 (陈克非),MAO Xian-ping1 (毛贤平), WANG Yong-tao3 (王永涛)
    2014, 19 (4):  398-405.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1514-6
    Abstract ( 667 )  
    In current cloud computing system, large amounts of sensitive data are shared to other cloud users. To keep these data confidentiality, data owners should encrypt their data before outsourcing. We choose proxy reencryption (PRE) as the cloud data encryption technique. In a PRE system, a semi-trusted proxy can transform a ciphertext under one public key into a ciphertext of the same message under another public key, but the proxy cannot gain any information about the message. In this paper, we propose a certificateless PRE (CL-PRE) scheme without pairings. The security of the proposed scheme can be proved to be equivalent to the computational Diffie- Hellman (CDH) problem in the random oracle model. Compared with other existing CL-PRE schemes, our scheme requires less computation cost and is significantly more efficient. The new scheme does not need the public key certificates to guarantee validity of public keys and solves the key escrow problem in identity-based public key cryptography.
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    Attribute-Based Signature on Lattices
    MAO Xian-ping1 (毛贤平), CHEN Ke-fei2*(陈克非), LONG Yu1 (龙宇), WANG Liang-liang1 (王亮亮)
    2014, 19 (4):  406-411.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1516-4
    Abstract ( 918 )  
    Attribute-based signature is a versatile class of digital signatures. In attribute-based signature, a signer obtains his private key corresponding to the set of his attributes from a trusted authority, and then he can sign a message with any predicate that is satisfied by his attributes set. Unfortunately, there does not exist an attributebased signature which is resistance to the quantum attacks. This means we do not have secure attribute-based signature schemes in a post-quantum world. Based on this consideration, an attribute-based signature on lattices, which could resist quantum attacks, is proposed. This scheme employs “bonsai tree” techniques, and could be proved secure under the hardness assumption of small integer solution problem.
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    One Construction of Chameleon All-But-One Trapdoor Functions
    XU Yi-dong* (许一栋), LIU Sheng-li (刘胜利)
    2014, 19 (4):  412-417.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1517-3
    Abstract ( 479 )  
    Chameleon all-but-one trapdoor functions (ABO-TDFs) were introduced by Lai et al. An important component of the existing constructions of chameleon ABO-TDFs based on the decisional Diffie-Hellman (DDH) assumption was the chameleon hash functions. In this paper, we instantiate the first chameleon ABO-TDFs based on DDH free of chameleon hash functions.
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    Robust Password and Smart Card Based Authentication Scheme with Smart Card Revocation
    XIE Qi* (谢 琪), LIU Wen-hao (刘文浩), WANG Sheng-bao (王圣宝),HU Bin (胡 斌), DONG Na (董 娜), YU Xiu-yuan (于秀源)
    2014, 19 (4):  418-424.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1518-2
    Abstract ( 637 )  
    User authentication scheme allows user and server to authenticate each other, and generates a session key for the subsequent communication. How to resist the password guessing attacks and smart card stolen attacks are two key problems for designing smart cart and password based user authentication scheme. In 2011, Li and Lee proposed a new smart cart and password based user authentication scheme with smart card revocation, and claimed that their scheme could be immunity to these attacks. In this paper, we show that Li and Lee’s scheme is vulnerable to off-line password guessing attack once the information stored in smart card is extracted, and it does not provide perfect forward secrecy. A robust user authentication scheme with smart card revocation is then proposed. We use a most popular and widely used formal verification tool ProVerif, which is based on applied pi calculus, to prove that the proposed scheme achieves security and authentication.
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    Research on Classification of Malware Source Code
    CHEN Chia-mei1 (陈嘉玫), LAI Gu-hsin2* (赖谷鑫)
    2014, 19 (4):  425-430.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1519-1
    Abstract ( 609 )  
    In the face threat of the Internet attack, malware classification is one of the promising solutions in the field of intrusion detection and digital forensics. In previous work, researchers performed dynamic analysis or static analysis after reverse engineering. But malware developers even use anti-virtual machine (VM) and obfuscation techniques to evade malware classifiers. By means of the deployment of honeypots, malware source code could be collected and analyzed. Source code analysis provides a better classification for understanding the purpose of attackers and forensics. In this paper, a novel classification approach is proposed, based on content similarity and directory structure similarity. Such a classification avoids to re-analyze known malware and allocates resources for new malware. Malware classification also let network administrators know the purpose of attackers. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can classify the malware efficiently with a small misclassification ratio and the performance is better than virustotal.
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    New Constructions of Dynamic Threshold Cryptosystem
    LONG Yu1* (龙宇), CHEN Ke-fei2 (陈克非), MAO Xian-ping1 (毛贤平)
    2014, 19 (4):  431-435.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1520-8
    Abstract ( 468 )  
    This study deals with the dynamic property of threshold cryptosystem. A dynamic threshold cryptosystem allows the sender to choose the authorized decryption group and the threshold value for each message dynamically. We first introduce an identity based dynamic threshold cryptosystem, and then use the Canetti- Halevi-Katz (CHK) transformation to transform it into a fully secure system in the traditional public key setting. Finally, the elegant dual system encryption technique is applied to constructing a fully secure dynamic threshold cryptosystem with adaptive security.
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    Provably Secure Authenticated Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange for Resource-Limited Smart Card
    CHIEN Hung-yu (简宏宇)
    2014, 19 (4):  436-439.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1521-7
    Abstract ( 704 )  
    Authenticated Diffie-Hellman key agreement is quite popular for establishing secure session keys. As resource-limited mobile devices are becoming more popular and security threats are increasing, it is desirable to reduce computational load for these resource-limited devices while still preserving its strong security and convenience for users. In this paper, we propose a new smart-card-based user authenticated key agreement scheme which allows users to memorize passwords, reduces users’ device computational load while still preserves its strong security. The proposed scheme effectively improves the computational load of modular exponentiations by 50%, and the security is formally proved.
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    Keyword Search Encryption Scheme Resistant Against Keyword-Guessing Attack by the Untrusted Server
    WANG Chih-hung* (王智弘), TU Tai-yuan (涂泰源)
    2014, 19 (4):  440-442.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1522-6
    Abstract ( 514 )  
    The user data stored in an untrusted server, such as the centralized data center or cloud computing server, may be dangerous of eavesdropping if the data format is a plaintext. However, the general ciphertext is difficult to search and thus limited for practical usage. The keyword search encryption is a helpful mechanism that provides a searchable ciphertext for some predefined keywords. The previous studies failed to consider the attack from the data storage server to guess the keyword. This kind of attack may cause some critical information revealed to the untrusted server. This paper proposes a new keyword search encryption model that can effectively resist the keyword-guessing attack performed by the untrusted data storage (testing) server. The testing (query) secret is divided into multiple shares so that the security can be guaranteed if the servers cannot conspire with each other to retrieve all shares of the secret.
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    Secure and Efficient Digital Rights Management Mechanisms with Privacy Protection
    HUANG Jheng-jia1 (黄政嘉), LU Pei-chun2 (卢佩君), JUANG Wen-shenq2* (庄文胜), FAN Chun-i1 (范俊逸), LIN Zheng-yang2 (林政扬), LIN Chun-hung2 (林俊宏)
    2014, 19 (4):  443-447.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1523-5
    Abstract ( 466 )  
    In the Internet or cloud computing environments, service providers provide more and more content services. Users can use these convenient content services in daily life. The major data of the user are maintained by the service providers except that some personal privacy data are stored at the client device. An attacker may try to invade the systems, and it will cause the damage of users and service providers. Also, users may lose their mobile devices and then it may cause the data disclosure problem. As a result, the data and privacy protection of users become an important issue in these environments. Besides, since many mobile devices are used in these environments, secure authentication and data protection methods must be efficient in these low resource environments. In this paper, we propose an efficient and privacy protection digital rights management (DRM) scheme that users can verify the valid service servers and the service servers can ensure the legal users. Since the key delegation center of the third party has the robust security protection, our proposed scheme stores the encrypted secret keys in the key delegation center. This approach not only can reduce the storage space of the user devices, but also can recover the encrypted secret keys in the key delegation center when a user loses her/his devices for solving the device losing problem.
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    Intrusion Detection Model with Twin Support Vector Machines
    HE Jun* (何俊), ZHENG Shi-hui (郑世慧)
    2014, 19 (4):  448-454.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1524-4
    Abstract ( 497 )  
    Intrusion detection system (IDS) is becoming a critical component of network security. However, the performance of many proposed intelligent intrusion detection models is still not competent to be applied to real network security. This paper aims to explore a novel and effective approach to significantly improve the performance of IDS. An intrusion detection model with twin support vector machines (TWSVMs) is proposed. In this model, an efficient algorithm is also proposed to determine the parameter of TWSVMs. The performance of the proposed intrusion detection model is evaluated with KDD’99 dataset and is compared with those of some recent intrusion detection models. The results demonstrate that the proposed intrusion detection model achieves remarkable improvement in intrusion detection rate and more balanced performance on each type of attacks. Moreover, TWSVMs consume much less training time than standard support vector machines (SVMs).
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    Visual Multi-Secret Sharing with Friendliness
    JENG Fuh-gwoa (郑富国), LIN Kai-siangb (林恺翔), LIN Chih-hungc (林志鸿), CHEN Tzung-herb*(陈宗和)
    2014, 19 (4):  455-465.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1525-3
    Abstract ( 655 )  
    Visual secret sharing (VSS) was used in the literature to encode and decode secret images until visual multi-secret sharing (VMSS) was proposed. Distinctly, multiple secret images can be encoded or decoded at a time in VMSS; however, only one secret image can be done in VSS. In VMSS, secrets are encoded into noise-like shares which have finally been stacked altogether so as to disclose each of the secrets by specific operations, such as rotating, flipping and sliding. Though the noise-like shares can be decoded by those operations, it is just like a fly in the ointment since they are hard to manage, to recognize and even to stack orderly. Based on some researches about user-friendly VSS for generating meaningful shares, a new friendly VMSS scheme is presented in this paper for achieving two main goals. One is trying to encode multiple secrets at a time and the other is making the decoding process easy to manage. The experimental results prove that our proposed scheme does work.
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    A Secure and Reliable Routing Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks
    HWANG Ren-junn* (黄仁俊), HSIAO Yu-kai (萧宇凯)
    2014, 19 (4):  466-475.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1526-2
    Abstract ( 284 )  
    This study proposes an efficient secure routing protocol which considers symmetric and asymmetric links for wireless mesh networks (WMNs). A wireless mesh network is a group of wireless mesh routers and several kinds of wireless devices (or nodes). Individual node cooperates by forwarding packets to each other, allowing nodes to communicate beyond the symmetric or asymmetric links. Asymmetric link is a special feature of WMNs because the wireless transmission ranges of different wireless devices may be different. The asymmetric link enhances WMN coverage. Providing security in WMNs has become an important issue over the last few years. Existing research on this topic tends to focus on providing security for routing and data content in the symmetric link. However, most studies overlook the asymmetric link in these networks. This study proposes a novel distributed routing protocol beyond symmetric and asymmetric links, to guarantee the security and high reliability of the established route in a hostile environment, such as WMNs, by avoiding the use of unreliable intermediate nodes. The routes generated by the proposed protocol are shorter than those in prior works. The major objective of the proposed protocol is to allow trustworthy intermediate nodes to participate in the path construction protocol. The mesh clients out of mesh router wireless transmission range may discover a secure route to securely connect to the mesh router for Internet access via the proposed protocol. The proposed protocol enhances wireless mesh network coverage and assures security.
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    Comparison on Hydraulic Characteristics Between Orifice Plate and Plug
    AI Wan-zheng1* (艾万政), WU Jian-hua2 (吴建华)
    2014, 19 (4):  476-480.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1527-1
    Abstract ( 380 )  
    Orifice plate energy dissipater as well as plug energy dissipater, as a kind of effective energy dissipater with characteristics of simple structure, convenient construction and high energy dissipation ratio, has become welcomed more and more by hydraulics researchers. The two kinds of energy dissipaters with sudden reduction and sudden enlargement forms are similar in energy dissipation mechanism, but there are differences in energy dissipation characteristics and cavitation characteristics. In the present paper, the differences between orifice plate and plug in energy loss coefficient, relating to their energy dissipation ratio, in the backflow region length, relating to their energy loss coefficient, and in the lowest wall pressure coefficient, relating to their cavitations risk, were analyzed by numerical simulations and physical experiment, and their features in above three aspects were also revealed. The results of research in the present paper demonstrate that the backflow region length of orifice plate is longer than that of plug at the same contraction ratio, the lowest wall pressure coefficient of plug is smaller than that of orifice plate at the same contraction ratio, and the energy loss coefficient of orifice plate is bigger than that of plug, which illustrates that plug is superior to orifice plate in resistance cavitation damage at the same contraction ratio.
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    Particle Swarm Approach for Structural Optimization of Battleship Strength Deck Under Air Blast
    YU Hai-yang1* (于海洋), ZHANG Shi-lian1 (张世联), LI Cong2 (李聪), WU Shao-bo1 (武少波)
    2014, 19 (4):  481-487.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1528-0
    Abstract ( 428 )  
    This paper presents the implementation and application of a modified particle swarm optimization (PSO) method with dynamic adaption for optimum design of a battleship strength deck subjected to non-contact explosion. The numerical simulation process is modified to be more computationally efficient so that the task is realizable. The input variables are the thickness of plates and the dimensions of stiffeners, and the total structural mass is chosen as the fitness value. In another case, the response surface method (RSM) is introduced and combined with PSO (PSO-RSM), and the results are compared with those obtained by the traditional PSO approach. It is indicated that the PSO method can be well applied in the optimum design of explosion-loaded deck structures and the PSO-RSM methodology can rapidly yield optimum designs with sufficient accuracy.
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    Numerical Study on Vortex Induced Vibration of a Flexible Plate Behind Square Cylinder with Various Flow Velocities
    HU Shi-lianga* (胡世良), LU Chuan-jinga,b (鲁传敬), HE You-shenga,b (何友声)
    2014, 19 (4):  488-494.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1529-z
    Abstract ( 407 )  
    The vortex induced vibration (VIV) of a flexible plate behind the square head with various flow velocities is simulated. The closely coupling approach is used to model this fluid-structure interaction problem. The fluid governed by the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is solved in arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) frame by the finite volume method. The structure described by the equations of the elastodynamics in Lagrangian representation is discretized by the finite element approach. The numerical results show that the resonance occurs when the frequency of vortex shedding from square head coincides with the natural frequency of plate. And the amplitude of both the structure motion and the fluid load keeps increasing with the time. Furthermore, it is also found that in particular range of flow velocity the vibration of the plate would reach a periodical state. The amplitude of plate oscillating increases with the growth of velocity, while the frequency is locked.
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    Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop of Liquid Nitrogen Boiling in the Straight Section Downstream of U-Bend
    DENG Dong (邓冬), XIE Si-wei (谢斯卫), WANG Rong-shun*(汪荣顺)
    2014, 19 (4):  495-501.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1530-6
    Abstract ( 467 )  
    The gas-liquid (two-phase) flow pressure drop of liquid nitrogen boiling in the straight section downstream of U-bend is investigated experimentally. The mass flux ranges from 32 to 280 kg/(m2· s). The inlet pressure of U-tube is from 140 to 272 kPa. And the curvature ratio is from 6.67 to 15. The tube wall including the U-bend is heated uniformly and the heat flux ranges from 0 to 22 kW/m2. The tube with higher inlet pressure has higher pressure drop in the downstream section of the bend. The bended degree of the U-bend influences the pressure drop in the downstream straight section of U-bend. A new correlation taking the effect of the secondary flow into account is proposed for the two-phase slip speed ratio. The pressure drop in the straight section downstream of U-bend calculated by the new correlation agrees well with experimental measurements.
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    Engineering Projects Real-Time Supervision Mechanism Based on Grid Management
    WU Yun-na (乌云娜), DONG He-yun* (董鹤云), ZHANG Hao-bo (张昊渤), ZHANG Jin-ying (张金颖)
    2014, 19 (4):  502-507.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1531-5
    Abstract ( 401 )  
    This paper proposes an innovative supervision method that can provide project supervisors with realtime supervision of engineering projects and contractor activity. To obtain real-time and comprehensive state of project, we use grid management to divide the project supervision grid in three levels: stage, objective, and milestone. Then, a detailed supervision mechanism is designed to help supervisors measure the project situation in real time. This mechanism checks that if the project objectives (such as schedule, cost, quality, and safety) in every supervision grid cell are under the healthy limits, any project deviation can be identified as soon as possible. A schedule objective is selected as an example to illustrate the method used to calculate the healthy limit.
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    Serum Renalase Inversely Related to Heart Rate Variability in Dialysis Patients
    HUANG Bao-rui1,2 (黄宝瑞), WANG Feng2* (王锋), LI Jun-hui2 (李军辉), WANG Nian-song1,2* (汪年松)
    2014, 19 (4):  508-512.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-014-1532-4
    Abstract ( 467 )  
    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a noninvasive technique for autonomic nerve activity assessment and an indirect index of adrenergic cardiovascular drive. Renalase is the only known enzyme degrading circulatory catecholamines, participating in regulations of the cardiovascular and sympathetic nervous systems. This study aims at the relation between serum renalase and HRV indexes in dialysis patients. There were 14 hemodialysis (HD) cases, 16 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) cases, and 16 healthy volunteers enrolled in this study. All the subjects underwent 24 h Holter testing by using a dynamic electocardiogram monitor system to determine HRV parameters, and serum renalase levels were measured. The standard deviation of normal to normal R-R intervals (SDNN, a measure of beat-to-beat variability), root mean square successive difference (RMSSD), and the proportion derived by dividing NN50 (the number of interval differences of successive normal to normal intervals greater than 50ms) by the total number of NN intervals (pNN50) were determined to assess HRV. Both HD and PD patients presented increased maximum heart rate (Max-HR), minimum heart rate (Min-HR) and average heart rate (Ave-HR), and presented decreased SDNN, RMSSD and pNN50 relative to healthy controls. Serum levels of renalase were highly negatively correlated with Ave-HR (correlation coefficient r = ?0.68, probability P < 0.01), while positively correlated with SDNN (r = 0.64, P < 0.01) in both the HD and PD groups. Serum level of renalase was positively correlated with 24 h urine volume (r = 0.73, P < 0.01) in PD patients. Renalase might be reciprocally related to HRV and inversely related to Ave-HR in dialysis patients, which will help to probe into renalase’s physiology and may pave the way to explore renalase replacement therapy in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD).
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