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    30 April 2013, Volume 18 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue

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    Review on Composite Structural Health Monitoring Based on Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing Principle
    QIU Ye (邱野), WANG Quan-bao (王全保), ZHAO Hai-tao* (赵海涛), CHEN Ji-an (陈吉安), WANG Yue-ying (王曰英)
    2013, 18 (2):  129-139.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1375-4
    Abstract ( 940 )  
    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) based sensors offer important advantages over traditional instrumentation with regards to real-time structural health monitoring (SHM) of composite materials and structures in recent years. FBG sensors, integrated into existing structures or embedded into new ones, have played a major role in assessing the safety and integrity of engineering structures. In this paper, a review on the latest research of the FBG-based SHM technique for composite field is presented. Firstly, the FBG sensing principle is briefly discussed and FBG and several other optical fiber sensors (OFSs) for SHM are performance-compared. Then, several examples of the use of FBG sensors in composite SHM are illustrated, including those from the field of cure monitoring, civil engineering, aviation, aerospace, marine and offshore platform. Finally, some existing problems are pointed out and some proposals for further researches are provided.
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    Optimization for PID Controller of Cryogenic Ground Support Equipment Based on Cooperative Random Learning Particle Swarm Optimization
    LI Xiang-bao* (李祥宝), JI Rui (季睿), YANG Yu-pu (杨煜普)
    2013, 18 (2):  140-146.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1376-3
    Abstract ( 749 )  
    Cryogenic ground support equipment (CGSE) is an important part of a famous particle physics experiment — AMS-02. In this paper a design method which optimizes PID parameters of CGSE control system via the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented. Firstly, an improved version of the original PSO, cooperative random learning particle swarm optimization (CRPSO), is put forward to enhance the performance of the conventional PSO. Secondly, the way of finding PID coefficient will be studied by using this algorithm. Finally, the experimental results and practical works demonstrate that the CRPSO-PID controller achieves a good performance.
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    Differential Fault Analysis and Meet-in-the-Middle Attack on the Block Cipher KATAN32
    ZHANG Wen-ying1,2 (张文英), LIU Feng1* (刘枫), LIU Xuan1 (刘宣), MENG Shuai1 (孟帅)
    2013, 18 (2):  147-152.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1377-2
    Abstract ( 814 )  
    We investigate the lightweight block cipher KATAN family which consists of three variants with 32, 48 and 64-bit block sizes, called KATAN32, KATAN48 and KATAN64 respectively. However, three variants all have the same key length of 80 bits. On the basis of the bit-oriented faulty model and the differential analysis principle, we describe the attack that combines differential fault attack with the meet-in-the-middle (MITM) attack on the KATAN32. More precisely, inducing a fault at a bit, we can recover some linear differential fault equations on the key bits. During solving equations, without the help of computer, we need only algebraic deduction to obtain relations of some key bits. The complexity in this process is neglectable. The secret key of the full cipher can be recovered faster than exhaustive search for all three block sizes in the KATAN family. Our result describes that KATAN32 is vulnerable.
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    Application of Method of Fundamental Solutions in Solving Potential Flow Problems for Ship Motion Prediction
    FENG Pei-yuana* (封培元), MA Ninga,b (马宁), GU Xie-chonga,b (顾解仲)
    2013, 18 (2):  153-158.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1378-1
    Abstract ( 678 )  
    A novel panel-free approach based on the method of fundamental solutions (MFS) is proposed to solve the potential flow for predicting ship motion responses in the frequency domain according to strip theory. Compared with the conventional boundary element method (BEM), MFS is a desingularized, panel-free and integration-free approach. As a result, it is mathematically simple and easy for programming. The velocity potential is described by radial basis function (RBF) approximations and any degree of continuity of the velocity potential gradient can be obtained. Desingularization is achieved through collating singularities on a pseudo boundary outside the real fluid domain. Practical implementation and numerical characteristics of the MFS for solving the potential flow problem concerning ship hydrodynamics are elaborated through the computation of a 2D rectangular section. Then, the current method is further integrated with frequency domain strip theory to predict the heave and pitch responses of a containership and a very large crude carrier (VLCC) in regular head waves. The results of both ships agree well with the 3D frequency domain panel method and experimental data. Thus, the correctness and usefulness of the proposed approach are proved. We hope that this paper will serve as a motivation for other researchers to apply the MFS to various challenging problems in the field of ship hydrodynamics.
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    Application of Conservative Surrogate to Reliability Based Vehicle Design for Crashworthiness
    PAN Feng1 (潘锋), ZHU Ping1,2* (朱平), CHEN Wei3 (陈卫), LI Chen-zhao1 (李忱钊)
    2013, 18 (2):  159-165.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1240-x
    Abstract ( 701 )  
    Surrogate models are commonly used for approximation of large computationally expensive vehicle crash simulation to facilitate rapid design space exploration and optimization. Unfortunately, the optimum design based on surrogates may turn out to be infeasible after running finite element crash simulation due to the surrogate errors. To meet this challenge, conservative strategy of surrogate modeling through compensating fitting errors was used for reliability based design optimization of vehicle structures for crashworthiness and weight reduction. The critical crash responses were constructed by unbiased kriging models, and conservative surrogates were obtained via adding safety margin to estimate the crash responses conservatively. The benefits of using conservative surrogates for reliability based design optimization were investigated in the context of constraint feasibility of the optimum designs through a mathematical example and a case study on vehicle crashworthiness design. The results demonstrate that optimization based on conservative surrogate helps to achieve the feasible optimum design, showing more attractive for reliability based design optimization in engineering applications.
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    Peak Current Control Strategy with Extended-State Tracking Compensator for DC-DC in Hybrid Energy Storage System
    WU Zhi-wei*(吴志伟), ZHANG Jian-long (张建龙), ZHANG Xi (张希), YIN Cheng-liang (殷承良)
    2013, 18 (2):  166-172.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1379-0
    Abstract ( 681 )  
    Because variations of ultra-capacitor voltage and battery voltage generate subharmonic and chaotic behaviors in hybrid energy storage system (HESS) application when a DC-DC converter is under the peak current control, a novel digital control strategy, i.e., peak current control with extended-state tracking compensator, is introduced to deal with the stability. The gains of the control algorithm are selected based on pole locations formulated from the Bessel filter. The simulation results validate that under the peak current control strategy with compensator, the DC-DC converter does not have the subharmonic and chaotic behaviors. The response time under the peak current control with compensator is the same as that under the peak current control. The ripple voltage and ripple current of battery are less. The tracking error of inductor current tends to zero.
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    Bi-slotted Binary Tree Algorithm with Stack for Radio Frequency Identification Tag Anti-Collision
    TIAN Yuna* (田芸), CHEN Gong-lianga (陈恭亮), LI Jian-huaa,b (李建华)
    2013, 18 (2):  173-179.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1380-7
    Abstract ( 657 )  
    A radio frequency identification (RFID) reader will fail to identify tags if a collision occurs. This paper proposes a bi-slotted binary tree algorithm (BSBTA) with stack for RFID tag anti-collision to improve the performance of binary tree algorithm (BTA). In BSBTA, the reader detects collisions by Manchester code and stores colliding prefixes in a stack. The query is composed of a two-bit prefix and an index value. Following every reader query, there are two timeslots for tags whose pointers and identities (IDs) match the query to respond, one for the tag whose next bit is 0 and the other for the tag with 1 as its next bit. Performance analysis and evaluation are also given. The time complexity and the communication complexity of BTA and BSBTA are derived. The simulation results compare the performance of BSBTA with several related anti-collision algorithms. It is shown that BSBTA outperforms BTA in terms of the average number of responded bits and timeslots for one tag identification.
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    Joint Tomlinson-Harashima Source and Linear Relay Precoder Design in Amplify-and-Forward Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Two-Way Relay Systems
    QIAN Cheng* (钱成), ZHANG Meng (张萌), LUO Han-wen (罗汉文), LIU Wei (刘伟)
    2013, 18 (2):  180-185.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1381-6
    Abstract ( 691 )  
    Existing minimum-mean-squared-error (MMSE) transceiver designs in amplified-and-forward (AF) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) two-way relay systems all assume a linear precoder at the sources. Nonlinear source precoders in such a system have not been considered yet. In this paper, we study the joint design of source Tomlinson-Harashima precoders (THPs), relay linear precoder and MMSE receivers in two-way relay systems. This joint design problem is a highly nonconvex optimization problem. By dividing the original problem into three sub-problems, we propose an iterative algorithm to optimize precoders and receivers. The convergence of the algorithm is ensured since the updated solution is optimal to each sub-problem. Numerical simulation results show that the proposed iterative algorithm outperforms other algorithms in the high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region.
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    Polycrystalline Behavior Analysis of Extruded Magnesium Alloy AZ31
    TANG Wei-qin (唐伟琴), HUANG Shi-yao (黄诗尧), ZHANG Shao-rui (张少睿), LI Da-yong (李大永), PENG Ying-hong* (彭颖红)
    2013, 18 (2):  186-189.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-012-1295-8
    Abstract ( 747 )  
    Uniaxial tensile and compressive tests were performed at room temperature on extruded AZ31 Mg alloy specimens and distinct tensile-compressive anisotropy was detected. Deformed specimens were examined and the results indicate that the generation of {10ˉ12}twin is responsible for the mechanical anisotropy. A rate independent crystal plasticity model, which accounts for both slip and twinning, was developed for polycrystalline hexagonal close packed (HCP) materials. Model predictions for the stress-strain curves and texture evolution were in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. Specifically, the model captured the three stages of strain hardening for uniaxial-compression. By comparing stress-strain curves and texture evolution between model predictions and experimental measures, information about the dominant slip and twinning systems active at room temperature was deduced.
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    Energy Principle of Corrosion Environment Accelerating Crack Propagation During Anodic Dissolution Corrosion Fatigue
    HUANG Xiao-guang1,2 (黄小光), XU Jin-quan1* (许金泉), FENG Miao-lin1 (冯淼林)
    2013, 18 (2):  190-196.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1382-5
    Abstract ( 602 )  
    A general method to predict the crack propagation of anodic dissolution corrosion fatigue is developed in this paper. Crack propagation of corrosion fatigue is presented as the result of the synergistic interactions of mechanical and environmental factors, and corrosive environment accelerates crack propagation mainly in term of anodic dissolution. By studying the variation of mechanical energy and electrochemical energy of anodic dissolution during the crack propagation process, an explicit expression of crack propagation rate is derived by the conservation of energy. The comparisons with experimental data demonstrate the validity of the proposed model. Moreover, the applicable upper-limit crack length for steady crack propagation is determined and the crack propagation life is evaluated.
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    Computational Method for Prestress Developing of Tensile Cable-Net Structures
    ZHAO Jun-zhao (赵俊钊), CHEN Wu-jun* (陈务军), FU Gong-yi (付功义)
    2013, 18 (2):  197-204.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1383-4
    Abstract ( 618 )  
    The prestress developing of tensile cable-net structures is a state transforming process from the initial unstressed state to the final prestressed state, and it is rather complicated because the elastic deformation is normally coupled with the kinematic mechanism movement. Firstly, the basic equations of prestress developing by moving boundary joint are derived from the total potential energy equation. Secondly, the presumed initial tension is proposed to impose into the elements and avoid the singularity of global stiffness matrix. And the self-stress mode which is calculated from the equilibrium matrix with singular value decomposition is employed as basically presumed initial tension. By applying boundary movement increment, an iterative computation is developed to calculate the updating geometric configuration and tension evolution. Finally, the MATLAB program is coded from the presented method, and numerical examples indicate that this computational method is effective and has theoretical significance and valuable guide to design and construction of tensile cable-net structure.
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    Development of 2D Hybrid Equilibrium Elements in Large Increment Method
    LONG Dan-binga* (龙丹冰), LIU Xi-lab (刘西拉)
    2013, 18 (2):  205-215.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1384-3
    Abstract ( 591 )  
    As a force-based finite element method (FEM), large increment method (LIM) has been developed in recent years. It has been shown that LIM provided prominent advantage of parallel computation with high efficiency and low time consumption for member structural system. To fully utilize its advantage in parallel computation, it is the time to extend LIM to 2D and 3D continua analysis. In this paper, a 2D finite element library with the capability of modeling arbitrary configurations is developed. Some illustrative numerical examples are solved by using the proposed library; the obtained results are compared with those obtained from both traditional displacement-based FEM and analytical solutions, which has clearly shown the advantages of LIM.
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    Weighted Graph Form of Structures and Its Application in Robustness Analysis
    GAO Yang* (高扬), LIU Xi-la (刘西拉)
    2013, 18 (2):  216-223.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1385-2
    Abstract ( 560 )  
    Structural robustness is the concept to evaluate whether local damages to the structure will cause disproportional consequences. It is one of the most important indexes to keep the structural safety, especially to consider a special loading named as “human active damage”. In the present paper, the loaded structure is analyzed by a weighted graph. The joints and members of the structure correspond to the vertexes and edges of the graph, and the ratio of the most dangerous stress state to the material strength of each member is treated as the weight of each edge. Based on the quantitative description of the structural topology, the structure graph is expressed as a hierarchical model which is built by a set of vertex-connected units. The local damage can be expressed as the deterioration of the unit(s), while the final possible failure mode of the structure can be obtained by a specific assignment of its weighted graph. In this way, the relationship between the structural behavior and the combined damages of the subordinate units in each hierarchy can be formed as an envelope diagram. This diagram exactly shows the contribution of each subordinate unit to the robustness of the whole structure. Furthermore, the most vulnerable part, as well as the topologic difference between the subordinates, can be found visually.
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    A Simplified Analysis Method for the Lateral Deformation of Braced Excavations
    XU Hai-yong1 (许海勇), LIU Wei1,2 (刘玮), CHEN Long-zhu1* (陈龙珠)
    2013, 18 (2):  224-228.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1386-1
    Abstract ( 680 )  
    Pile-anchor retaining structure is widely used in foundation pit engineering and side slope engineering in many countries. In contrast to strut, pile-anchor retaining structure has its typical features and advantages. It does not occupy the internal space of the foundation pit, and the project cost is much lower. Accurate prediction of the lateral displacement of the retaining structure is very important in the design stage. A simplified analysis method and several calculation assumptions of the lateral deformation of pile-anchor retaining structures are set up according to the engineering features. The expression function of lateral displacement versus depth is solved by means of a fitted function and the quasi-elastic summation method. The parameters are obtained through the stiffness equation of the anchors and the principle of minimum potential energy. The analytical evaluation of the lateral deformation curve is then completed, whose applicability is proved through practical engineering.
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    An Improved Method of Detecting Chaotic Motion for Rotor-Bearing Systems
    SHI Ming-lin* (师名林), WANG De-zhong (王德忠), ZHANG Ji-ge (张继革)
    2013, 18 (2):  229-236.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1387-0
    Abstract ( 712 )  
    Based on reconstructing the phase space and calculating the largest Lyapunov exponent, an improved method of detecting chaotic motion is presented for rotor-bearing systems. The method is an improvement to the Wolf method and the Rosenstein algorithm. The improved method introduces the correlation integral function method to estimate the embedding dimension and the reconstruction delay simultaneously, and it makes tracks for the evolutions of every pair of the nearest neighbors to improve the utilization of the reconstructed phase space. Numerical calculation and experimental verification show that the improved method can estimate the proper reconstruction parameters and detect chaotic motion of rotor-bearing systems accurately. In addition, the analytical results show that the current approach is robust to variations of the embedding dimension and the reconstruction delay, and it is applicable to small data sets.
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    Friction and Wear Performances of Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition Multilayer Diamond Films Coated on Silicon Carbide Under Water Lubrication
    CHEN Nai-chao (陈乃超), SUN Fang-hong* (孙方宏)
    2013, 18 (2):  237-242.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1388-z
    Abstract ( 573 )  
    Tribological properties of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films greatly affect its application in the mechanical field. In this paper, a novel multilayer structure is proposed, with which multilayer diamond films are deposited on silicon carbide by hot filament CVD (HFCVD) method. The different micrometric diamond grains are produced by adjusting deposition parameters. The as-deposited multilayer diamond films are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and white-light interferometry. The friction tests performed on a reciprocating ball-on-plate tribometer suggest that silicon carbide presents the friction coefficient of 0.400 for dry sliding against silicon nitride (Si3N4) ceramic counterface. With the water lubrication, the corresponding friction coefficients of silicon carbide and as-deposited multilayer diamond films further reduce to 0.193 and 0.051, respectively. The worn surfaces indicate that multilayer diamond films exhibit considerably high wear resistance.
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    Solving Airlines Disruption by Considering Aircraft and Crew Recovery Simultaneously
    LE Mei-long* (乐美龙), WU Cong-cong (吴聪聪)
    2013, 18 (2):  243-252.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1389-y
    Abstract ( 701 )  
    When disruptions occur, the airlines have to recover from the disrupted schedule. The recovery usually consists of aircraft recovery, crew recovery and passengers’ recovery. This paper focuses on the integrated recovery, which means above-mentioned two or more recoveries are considered as a whole. Taking the minimization of the total cost of assignment, cancellation and delay as an objective, we present a more practical model, in which the maintenance and the union regulations are considered. Then we present a so-called iterative tree growing with node combination method. By aggregating nodes, the possibility of routings is greatly simplified, and the computation time is greatly decreased. By adjusting the consolidating range, the computation time can be controlled in a reasonable time. Finally, we use data from a main Chinese airline to test the algorithm. The experimental results show that this method could be used in the integrated recovery problem.
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    Measurement and Correlation of the Solubility of 1-Hydroxyphenazine in Different Solvents at Temperature from 278.5 to 333.5K
    FAN Yue-lei (范月蕾), PENG Hua-song* (彭华松), XIE Kan (谢侃), ZHANG Xue-hong (张雪洪)
    2013, 18 (2):  253-256.  doi: 10.1007/s12204-013-1390-5
    Abstract ( 683 )  
    Compound of 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-OH-PHZ) is an important fungicide in agricultural production. The ranges of 1-OH-PHZ solubilities in dichloromethane at temperature of 278.5—308.5 K and in ethyl acetate, methanol and water at temperature of 278.5—333.5 K were measured using the analytical stirred flask method at barometric pressure. The color of the liquid remained unchanged throughout. The solubilities of 1-OH-PHZ in water, methanol, ethyl acetate and dichloromethane increased orderly and these solubilities also increased with increasing the temperature. The experimental data was correlated by the modified Apelblat equation. The root mean square deviations were all within 0.5% and the maximum relative average deviation was 5.2%. The calculated solubility shows a good relationship with the experimental solubility.
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